on Traffic

on Traffic
Document number 1830-რს
Document issuer Parliament of Georgia
Date of issuing 24/12/2013
Document type Law of Georgia
Source and date of publishing Website, 03/01/2014
Registration code 310150000.05.001.017312
Consolidated publications
1830-რს
24/12/2013
Website, 03/01/2014
310150000.05.001.017312
on Traffic
Parliament of Georgia
Attention! You are not reading the final edition. In order to read the final edition, please, choose the respective consolidated version.

Consolidated versions (05/07/2018 - 19/03/2019)

 

LAW OF GEORGIA

ON TRAFFIC

 

 

Chapter I – General Provisions

 

Article 1 – Scope of the Law

1. This Law sets forth the legal grounds for ensuring traffic regulation and traffic safety in the territory of Georgia, basic areas of state policy in the field of traffic safety, the rights and obligations of state authorities, traffic rules and conditions, traffic signs and road markings, the rights and obligations of road users, and general requirements for granting driving licences and for the registration of vehicles.

2. This Law shall apply to the citizens of Georgia, aliens and stateless persons, who are road users in the territory of Georgia, as well as to vehicles which are part of international traffic in the territory of Georgia, unless otherwise provided for by the international treaties or agreements of Georgia.

3. For the purposes of this Law movement in the following locations shall not be deemed traffic:

a) roads which are temporarily closed to traffic as a result of the decisions of the authorised state bodies for holding sporting or public events;

b) territories which are permanently closed to traffic and are intended to hold sporting events with the participation of vehicles.

 

Article 2 – Annexes to the Law

1. This Law has the following annexes:

a) Annex No1 Traffic Signs;

b) Annex No 2 Road Markings;

c) Annex No 3 Vehicle Markings;

d) Annex No 4 List of Variations in Traffic Lights;

e) Annex No 5 Table of the Reduction of the Number of Points Granted to a Driving Licence.

2. The annexes referred to in paragraph 1 of this article shall be construed as inseparable parts of this Law.

Law of Georgia No 711 of 21 April 2017 – website, 10.5.2017

 

Article 3 – The legislation of Georgia in the field of traffic and traffic regulation

The legislation of Georgia in the field of traffic and traffic regulation comprises the Constitution of Georgia, the international treaties and agreements of Georgia, this Law, and other normative acts of Georgia.

 

Article 4 – Liability for violation of the legislation of Georgia in the field of traffic and traffic regulation 

Violation of the legislation of Georgia in the field of traffic and traffic regulation shall entail civil, criminal and administrative liability as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

 

Article 5 – Terms used in this Law

1. Bus – a motor vehicle designed for the conveyance of passengers, which has more than eight passenger seats in addition to the driver's seat.

2. Motorway – a specially constructed road which is designed for the movement of motor vehicles, and which is not intended to serve adjacent territories, and:

a) which, except for temporary or special locations, has carriageways for both traffic directions separated by a central reservation (which is not intended for traffic) or in special cases, has carriageways that are separated by other barriers.

b) which does not intersect roads, railway or tramway lines, pedestrian paths and cycle paths on a single level;

c) which is marked by the traffic sign 'Motorway'.

3. Articulated lorry – a lorry combined with a trailer(s) with over 750kg of maximum authorised mass (MAM).

4. Towing vehicle – a specialised vehicle for the transportation of cars and light wheeled tractors.

5. Motor vehicle (automobile) – a mechanical vehicle generally used for the conveyance of passengers or for the carriage of goods on roads and/or for towing vehicles intended for the conveyance of passengers or for the carriage of goods on roads. The term includes a trolleybus, i.e. a vehicle powered electrically and operating on tyres. The term does not include mechanical vehicles, such as a tractor, for which the conveyance of passengers and the carriage of goods, or the towing of vehicles intended for the conveyance of passengers and for the carriage of goods on roads, is a supplementary function.

6. Periodic technical inspection – a combination of technical operations and procedures, which determine the technical conditions of the main elements of traffic safety with a predetermined periodicity, and the content of harmful substances concentrated in car exhaust emissions in the ambient air.

7. Poor visibility – the reduction of visibility on a road to less than 300 metres distance when passing through a tunnel, and during the hours of darkness, or during fog, rain, snow or any other natural phenomena.

8. Towing – the hauling of a motor vehicle with the help of another motor vehicle.

9. Central reservation – a component of the road, which is separated from the main structure of the road and which divides adjacent carriageways and is not intended for the movement of wheeled vehicles.

10. Overtaking – the act of moving past one or several vehicles in the preceding traffic by pulling outside of vehicles in the occupied lane and then by returning to the same lane.

11. Stopping – the predetermined stopping of the movement of motor vehicles for five minutes or longer, if it is necessary to pick up or drop off passengers or to load or unload motor vehicles. The predetermined stopping of the movement of motor vehicles in traffic flow due to technical devices for the regulation of traffic or due to the requirements of traffic wardens shall not be considered as stopping.

12. Road – the entire surface of a road or a street open to traffic. A road may comprise a single carriageway or several carriageways which are clearly separated by central reservations or lanes and are located on various levels. The term may include tramways, pavements, shoulders, lanes, cycle paths, and skiing/skating zones (areas).

13. Junction – the area where roads cross, join or branch off, including the area created by such a crossing, joining or branching off. The intersection of side roads with main roads shall not be considered as a junction. 

14. Give way (not creating obstructions) – an obligation of road users not to continue or resume driving or not to make manoeuvres, if such acts force other road users, who have a priority, to suddenly change traffic direction or speed.

15. Carriageway (lane) – a part of a road which is intended for driving wheeled motor vehicles (except for pavements, shoulders, cycle paths and pedestrian paths).

16. Traffic sign additional panel – a traffic sign specifying or limiting the traffic sign it is used with.

17. Built-up area – a built up area, where the exit and the entrance is marked with respective traffic signs.

18. Laden mass (actual mass) – the actual mass of a vehicle laden for a given period, including a driver and passengers.

19. Unladen mass (unladen weight) – the mass of a vehicle determined by the manufacturer excluding a driver, passengers and freight, but including a full reserve of fuel and a necessary tool kit.

20. Standing – intentional stopping of vehicles for more than five minutes, unless this is required to pick up or drop off passengers or to load and unload motor vehicles.

21. The hours of darkness – the time span between the dusk and the dawn.

22. Bicycle – a vehicle which has at least two wheels (with tyres) and which is operated by the muscle power of the person who rides it, namely by moving pedals or handlebars. The term does not include a wheel-chair.

23. Bicycle track (cycle path) – a road or a part thereof marked with an appropriate traffic sign and intended for riding bicycles, and which is structurally separated from other roads or other elements of roads.

24. Cycle lane – a lane of a carriageway intended for riding bicycles. A cycle lane shall be separated from the rest of the carriageway by a longitudinal road marking.

25. Driving instructor – a teacher of the practical driving of vehicles of different categories and subcategories set forth in Article 54 of this Law, and a natural person who meets the requirements set forth in the legislation of Georgia.

26. Involuntary stop – the stopping of vehicles due to technical problems or dangers caused by the condition of the goods being transported and the state of the drivers (or passengers), or due to unforeseen obstructions created on the road.

27. Quadricycle – a four-wheel motor vehicle, other than a light quadricycle, whose engine power does not exceed 15kV and whose unladen mass exceeds 350kg, but is no more than 400kg, or 550kg if intended for the transportation of goods. In the case of electric vehicles the mass of batteries is not included in the unladen mass of the quadricycle. The motor vehicle specified in this paragraph, which meets the technical parameters of tricycles, shall be deemed to be a motorised tricycle. 

28. Motorised bicycle – a two or three-wheel vehicle, which is equipped with an internal combustion engine whose working cylinder volume does not exceed 50 cm3, and whose maximum design speed does not exceed 45km/h, and which shares the parameters of a bicycle in that it is ridden by means of pedals and handlebars.

29. Design speed – the maximum speed of vehicles as determined by the manufacturer.

30. Container – as per the definition set forth in the Customs Convention of 1972 on Containers.

31. Manoeuvre – pulling off, turning right or left, making a U-turn, reversing, bypassing obstructions and/or changing lanes (regrouping).

32. Traffic warden – a person determined by the legislation of Georgia who is entitled to regulate traffic and who, within his/her scopes of authority, may restrict the movement of road users, change their direction and/or stop them.

33. Route – a predetermined roadway between the points (with or without indicating the stops) which is approved by the duly authorised bodies and which is intended for the passage of buses or above-ground electric vehicles.

34. Passenger – a person who is in a vehicle, who enters or leaves a vehicle, and who does not drive it.

35. Motor vehicle – a power-driven vehicle (self-propelled), except for two wheel electric scooters, mopeds and other vehicles of similar type, and rail vehicles.

36. Drover – a person who droves or accompanies pack, draft or mount animals.

37. Main road – a road with the traffic signs No 2.1 or 5.1 on the entire section under the coverage zone of such signs. A road with the traffic signs No. 1.7.1-1.7.7 shall be construed as the main road at junctions, in relation to intersecting roads, and a road with a solid surface (with an asphalt and/or cement-concrete surface, or a surface of similar material, or roads paved with cobblestone) shall be construed as a main road in relation to gravel or dirt roads, and a gravel road shall be construed as a main road in relation to dirt roads. A gravel or dirt road directly in front of a junction with a solid surface area may not be construed as a solid surface road.

38. Adjacent territory – a roadside area which is not intended for traffic flow (yards, residential blocks, parking areas, petrol stations, offices, etc.).

39. Trailer – a motor vehicle which is intended for towing with the help of a motor vehicle. The term includes semi-trailers and single axle trailers.

40. Aboveground electric vehicle – trolley buses and trams.

41. Mobile phone – a device which allows a continuous telephone conversation between two or more natural persons and/or the sending and receiving of textual information.

42. Moped – a two or three wheel motor vehicle,­ whose design speed does not exceed 45km/h, and whose working cylinder volume in the internal-combustion engine does not exceed 50 cm3, and in the case of an electric engine, whose maximum generated voltage does not exceed 4kV. A motorised bicycle and­ a light quadricycle shall fall into the category of a moped.

43. Motorised tricycle – a tricycle whose engine power does not exceed 15kV, and whose unladen mass exceeds 350kg, but is less than 400kg, or less than 550 kg if it is intended for transporting cargo. In the case of electric vehicles the mass of batteries are not included in the unladen mass of a tricycle.

44. Motorcycle – a two wheel motor vehicle with or without a side-car. A three wheel motor vehicle whose unladen mass does not exceed 400kg shall fall into the category of a motorcycle. 

45. Lane – any longitudinal line with or without road markings, by which a carriageway may be divided, and whose width is enough for the movement of vehicles in a row, and which is different from the one intended for motorcycles.

46. Car – a car (except for a motorcycle) with a maximum authorised mass of 3500kg and with no more than eight passenger seats, excluding the driver's seat.

47. Light quadricycle – a four wheel vehicle with a maximum design speed of no more than 45km/h, and with an internal combustion engine whose working cylinder volume does not exceed 50 cm3, and in the case of an electric engine, whose maximum generated voltage is 4kV, and whose unladen mass does not exceed 350kgs (in the case of electric vehicles the batteries are not included in the unladen mass).

48. Light trailer – a trailer with a maximum laden weight of no more than 750kgs.

49. Driver – a natural person who drives a motor vehicle. A drover shall have equal rights to a driver. During practical driving lessons a driving instructor shall have equal rights to a driver.

50. Driving school – a public or private entity or a business entity which gives theoretical and/or practical training and education (training courses) to drivers as provided for by the legislation of Georgia in order to enable them to drive vehicles of the categories and subcategories referred to in Article 54 of this Law.

51. Semi-trailer – a trailer intended to be towed by a vehicle such that a part of the trailer is supported by the vehicle and a significant portion of the weight of the trailer and its cargo is borne by the vehicle.

52. Maximum authorised mass (permissible weight) – the maximum weight of a fully laden vehicle, which is acknowledged as permissible by a public authority of due competence by which such vehicle is registered.

53. Slow-moving vehicle – a motor vehicle whose maximum design speed does not exceed 40km/h or which cannot exceed such speed or which is not allowed to exceed such speed for reasons not related to traffic flow.

54. Duplication of traffic signs – the installation of similar signs in a transverse cross-sectional view on the section of a road across one another.

55. Repetition of traffic signs – the repetition of main traffic signs on the same side of the road at certain intervals.

56. Two wheel electric scooter – a two wheel self-balancing single axle vehicle which is designed to carry a single passenger and is driven with the help of electric power.

57. Regulated motorcade – a group of three or more motor vehicles moving in a line with lights constantly switched on and accompanied by a leading motor vehicle with blue or blue and red flashing beacons.­

58. Railway level crossing – an intersection of a road with railway or tramway lines on one level.

59. Road marking (marking) – a line, arrow or other markings under Annex No 2 of this Law existing on carriageways, components of road equipment and road structures, and which serves to regulate traffic or to provide information on traffic conditions to road users.

60. Traffic – the relations between road users moving with or without vehicles or while standing on roads.

61. Road user – a person who is directly involved in traffic flow as a driver, a passenger or a pedestrian.

62. Regulation of traffic – a combination of legal, organisational and technical measures which ensures the management of traffic.

63. Ensuring traffic safety – activities related to the elimination of the causes of traffic accidents and to the prevention of traffic fatalities.

64. Traffic sign (sign) – an installation of a specific shape referred to in Annex No 1 of this Law with an image or an inscription on it (including in electronic form), which provides information to road users on the condition of roads and traffic, and on residential areas and other facilities.

65. Traffic accident (accident) – an occurrence during the driving of a vehicle on a road and with the participation of such vehicle, in which an individual has been injured or killed, or a vehicle, cargo, structure or other property has been damaged.

66. International traffic – a vehicle moving in the territory of a country shall be deemed engaged in international traffic if it:

a) belongs to a natural or a legal person, who usually resides outside such country;

b) is not registered in such country;

c) has been temporarily taken into such country, but for not longer than the period established by legislation.

Note: A caravan may be considered engaged in international traffic if at least one of the vehicles included in the caravan meets the requirements under this paragraph. 

67. Mini-bus – a vehicle which is intended to carry passengers along scheduled routes.

68. Braking distance – the distance covered by a vehicle from the instant a braking device is applied until the complete stop of the vehicle. 

69. Agricultural vehicle – a specially designed wheeled or tracked motor vehicle which is intended for agricultural, melioration or forestry works, and for which the conveyance of passengers or the carriage of goods, or the towing of vehicles intended for the conveyance of passengers or for the carriage of goods, shall be deemed an additional function. A specialised vehicle which is made on the basis of a car shall not be construed as an agricultural vehicle.

70. Supplementary technical equipment for agricultural vehicles – auxiliary technical equipment (appliances) to be attached to agricultural vehicles and to be operated together with such vehicles, and which are applied for conducting agricultural, melioration or forestry works.

71. Lorry – a motor vehicle with a maximum laden mass of no more than 3,500kg, and which is designed to carry cargo.

72. Column – a group of two or more vehicles travelling in a row in an organised manner.

73. Vehicle – a machine which moves on roads or which is intended for movement on roads, and which moves with the help of an engine or other power mechanism.

74. Caravan – a towed vehicle which acts as one whole with the towing vehicle in traffic flow.

75. Residential area – a built-up area where special traffic rules apply and where the entrance and the exit is marked with respective traffic signs.

76. Truck tractor – a mechanical means of conveyance which is to be operated together with a semi-trailer.

77. Dangerous goods – substances and/or items, which, according to international rules, and according to the type of danger they pose, are classified as class 9, and the international carriage of which is prohibited in accordance with the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR), or the carriage of which may be permitted only if certain conditions are complied with.

78. Animal-powered vehicle – a means of conveyance with or without wheels and with no engine, which moves with the help of the power of draft animals.

79. Specialised self-propelled vehicle – a wheeled or tracked motor vehicle whose design speed is more than 6km/h but is less than 45km/h, and which is intended for the performance of road construction works. A specialised vehicle designed on the basis of a car may not be construed as a specialised self-propelled vehicle.

80. Gross vehicle weight – the kerb weight of a vehicle including goods, a driver and passengers; the limit of the gross vehicle weight shall be determined by the manufacturer. The gross weight of a caravan shall be calculated on the basis of the total of the gross weight of vehicles included in the caravan.

81. Tractor – a wheeled or tracked agricultural vehicle with two or more axles.

82. Tricycle – an engine vehicle with three symmetrical wheels, and whose working cylinder volume in the internal combustion engine (if any) does not exceed 50 cm3 and/or whose design speed does not exceed 45km/h.

83. Pavement – a component of a road, which is connected to or separated from a carriageway structurally or by means of a lawn and which is intended for the movement of pedestrians.

84. Priority – the privilege of a road user to travel in a chosen direction prior to other road users.

85. Pedestrian path – a path separated from the road and intended for the movement of pedestrians. A pedestrian path may be marked with a proper traffic sign.

86. Pedestrian crossing – a section of a carriageway where it is intended for pedestrians to cross the road and which is marked by the traffic signs No.5.19.1 and No. 5.19.2 and/or road markings No.1.14.1-1.14.2. If such road markings are not provided, the width of the pedestrian crossing shall be the distance between the traffic signs No.5.19.1 and No. 5.19.2.

87. Pedestrian – a road user who travels on foot or by means of roller blades, a skateboard, a sledge or the like. Persons who are pushing prams or wheelchairs or any other small-size vehicles that have no engine shall be deemed to be pedestrians, including persons relocating a bicycle, a moped or a motorcycle, and persons with disabilities who travel by wheelchair.

88. Axle load – a fraction of the actual laden weight of a vehicle which the road is subject to as a result of pressure on the axle. When determining the load on each leading and non-leading axle, axles located on the same horizontal line of the vehicle and separated structurally shall be construed as a single combined axle. 

89. Poor visibility – circumstances in which short turns, the brows of hills, green areas, roadside structures or obstructions on roads, reduce visibility in the direction of traffic, and in which driving at the maximum permitted speed may pose a danger.

90. Articulated bus – a bus which consists of sections, and in which passengers are able to move freely between sections. The joining and separation of such sections shall be permitted only in accordance with manufacturing standards.

91. Traffic light – an electronic device as provided for in Annex No 3 of this Law, which is intended for the regulation of traffic on roads by means of coloured flash signals.

92. Main sign – a traffic sign whose installation is necessitated by the requirements of traffic regulation.

93. Skiing and/or skating zone (area) – a slope and/or a road (trail) for skiing or skating on snow and/or ice, as well as other areas whose boundaries are approved by the Government of Georgia or by a body authorised by the Government of Georgia, and whose control and administration are conducted by a person authorised by the Government of Georgia.

94. Skiing and/or skating slope and/or road (trail) – all types of slope or road (trail) for skiing and/or skating on snow and/or ice, snowmobile and/or motor sledge trails and adjacent skiing and/or skating surface (edges and creeks), whose boundaries are approved by the Government of Georgia or a body authorised by the Government of Georgia, and whose control and administration are conducted by a person authorised by the Government of Georgia.

95. Ski trail user – a road user, who uses a skiing and/or skating slope or a road (trail) for walking or skiing, including on skis, snowboards, sledges, snow bicycles, toboggans or on any other ski transport intended for travelling on snow or ice.

96. Snowmobile – a motorised, tracked or other type of vehicle intended for travelling on snow and/or ice, which is operated with the help of a steering wheel mechanism or a device equipped with a 'joystick', including motor sledges, or any snowmobile vehicle, as well as a snow compaction tractor or other special purpose vehicle.

97. Motor sledge – an open-type motorised vehicle for travelling on snow and/or ice, which is operated with the help of a steering wheel mechanism.

98. Motor sledge trail – a road or a section of a road marked with a proper sign and which is intended for travelling by motor sledge, and is structurally separated from other roads or components of roads.

Law of Georgia No 4789 of 19 February 2016 – website, 7.3.2016

Law of Georgia No 5509 of 22 June 2016 – website, 29.6.2016

Law of Georgia No 1913 of 23 December 2017 – website, 28.12.2017

 

Chapter II – Traffic Regulation and Traffic Safety

 

Article 6 – Ensuring traffic safety

Traffic safety shall be ensured by:

a) the regulation of activities in the field of automobiles, aboveground electric transport and the road industry;

b) the regulation of traffic;

c) the provision of material and financial support for traffic safety measures;

d) the organisation of the training of persons in the field of the rules and requirements of traffic safety;

e) the development of a complex of measures to ensure medical support in the field of traffic safety;

f) the issuance of certificates of vehicles, and products related to vehicles, and for activities in the field of the road industry as provided for by the Product Safety and Free Movement Code.

g) the development of rules, standards, technical regulations and other normative acts in the field of ensuring traffic safety and the approval thereof as provided for by the Legislation of Georgia, as well as the exercise of state supervision and control over compliance with such rules, standards, technical regulations and other normative acts.

 

Article 7 – Powers of the executive authorities and local self-government bodies of Georgia for ensuring traffic regulation and traffic safety

1. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia and other appropriate state agencies shall exercise state supervision and control in the field of ensuring traffic safety within their scopes of authority as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

2. The powers of the executive authorities and local self-government bodies of Georgia in the field of ensuring traffic regulation and traffic safety are to:

a) participate in the development of a unified state policy in the field of ensuring traffic safety in the whole territory of Georgia;

b) establish the legal grounds for ensuring traffic safety as provided for by this Law;

c) create a unified system of rules, standards, technical regulations and other normative acts with respect to matters related to ensuring traffic safety;

d) exercise state supervision and control over traffic safety as well as over activities in the said field, and carry out appropriate preventive measures;

e) ensure the observance of the international treaties and agreements by Georgia in the field of traffic safety;

f) exercise other powers determined by the legislation of Georgia.

3. Local self-government bodies, in accordance with the legislation of Georgia and within their scopes of authority, shall render decisions independently with regard to matters related to ensuring traffic safety.

4. In the cases provided for by the Administrative Offences Code of Georgia and the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia, where there are grounds for the relocation of vehicles to a special or other type of protected parking area, the procedures for the selection and use of such services for achieving the said purpose shall be determined by an order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

5. In order to prevent traffic obstructions, the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia shall establish procedures for the regulation of the tailbacks of lorries at border checkpoints located on sections of the state land border of Georgia.

6. A body authorised by the Government of Georgia shall establish safety rules for using skiing and/or skating trails (for travelling, skiing) in skiing and/or skating zones (areas).

Law of Georgia No 4789 of 19 February 2016 – website, 7.3.2016

 

Article 8 – Organisation of state registration of key traffic safety performance indices

1. The state registration of road safety performance indices shall be performed in the whole territory of Georgia. Such indices include: the number of traffic accidents and of persons injured during such accidents, the number of motor vehicles and drivers, the number of traffic offenders and the number of administrative offences and criminal violations related to traffic, as well as other indices showing the conditions of traffic safety and activities for ensuring traffic safety.

2. The state registration policy in the field of ensuring traffic safety and its implementation shall be based on the state registration system.

3. The procedures for performing state registration in the field of ensuring traffic safety, and for using registration certificates, and creating rated data, shall be established by the legislation of Georgia.

 

Article 9 – Programmes for ensuring traffic safety 

1. For the purposes of implementing state policy in the field of ensuring traffic safety, state and local programmes shall be developed in order to reduce the number of traffic accidents and the volume of damage caused by such accidents.

2. The Government of Georgia shall approve state programmes for ensuring traffic safety.

3. A local self-government body shall approve local programmes for ensuring traffic safety.

4. State and local programmes for ensuring traffic safety shall be financed from appropriate budgets.

 

Article 10 – Key requirements for ensuring traffic safety while operating vehicles

1. The technical condition of vehicles involved in traffic ensures traffic safety.

2. The owners of vehicles or persons who operate vehicles shall be responsible for ensuring the technical operability of vehicles involved in traffic.

 

Article 11 – Periodic technical inspection 

1. Motor vehicles, which are operating in the territory of Georgia and are registered as provided for by the legislation of Georgia, shall undergo periodic technical inspeciton in an inspection centre ('the inspection centre') accredited by the Legal Entity under Public Law Unified National Body of Accreditation called the Accreditation Centre (the Accreditation Centre).

2. Periodic technical inspection may be conducted in any inspection centre, regardless of the registration place of the vehicle or the legal address of a person.

3. The accreditation of inspection centres shall be carried out in accordance with the rules and procedures of accreditation system approved by the Accreditation Centre.

4. The requirements to the premises, equipment and technical qualification of personnel shall be determined by the normative act of the Government of Georgia.

5. The requirements to periodic technical inspection, its periodicity and fees shall be determined by the normative act of the Government of Georgia.

6. The requirements to periodic technical inspection includes technical requirements (for the compliance with these technical requirements periodic technical inspection is held), as well as the form approving the completion of the technical inspection of a motor vehicle, periodicity and fees for different categories of motor vehicles.

7. An inspection centre referred to in paragraph 1 of this article shall be responsible for an approval of the completion of periodic technical inspection and its lawfulness. 

8. Without the completion of periodic technical inspection by a motor vehicle the responsibility for driving shall be determined by the legislation of Georgia.

9. The inspection centre shall be obliged to provide the Accreditation Centre with the information regarding periodic technical inspection in a requested form, as well as the Ministry of Internal Affairs within the scope of its authority. The Accreditation Centre shall be authorised to monitor an inspection centre, including by visiting on site at any time.

Law of Georgia No 1913 of 23 December 2017 – website, 28.12.2017

 

Article 12 – Prohibition of the operation of vehicles

1. For the purposes of traffic safety it shall be prohibited to:

a) operate a vehicle which falls into the category of faulty vehicles determined by the Government of Georgia;

b) operate a vehicle with excessively dark tinting applied to the windows or where the transparency of the windows is otherwise diminished in violation of procedures established by the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

2. The restrictions referred to in paragraph 1(b) of this article do not apply to vehicles on the list determined by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

 

Article 13 – Restriction or temporary interruption of traffic flow on roads 

1. Restriction or temporary interruption of traffic flow on roads may take place:

a) in the cases of damaged roads, poor visibility, natural phenomena, natural disasters, road accidents, catastrophes or other fatalities, for the purposes of ensuring traffic safety and for the protection of human life, health and property, by appropriate executive authorities and local self-government bodies of Georgia within their scopes of authority;

b) for the purposes of carrying out criminal intelligence and investigative activities;

c) in other cases as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

2. In the cases referred to in paragraph 1(b) and (c) of this article, vehicle drivers shall be required to present an identity document for verification upon the request of an authorised person of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

 

Article 14 – Activities in the field of traffic regulation

1. Activities in the field of traffic regulation shall be performed by means of the combined use of such technical means which are regulated by the legislation of Georgia and are set forth in the projects and schemes of traffic regulation.

2. No changes to traffic regulation for increasing traffic capacity or for other purposes shall be permitted at the expense of reducing traffic safety. 

 

Article 15 – Main requirements for ensuring traffic safety during road projection, construction, reconstruction and repair works 

1. Road projection, construction, reconstruction and repair works for the purposes of ensuring traffic safety shall be conducted as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

2. Constructed, reconstructed and repaired roads shall be opened for use in accordance with the construction norms and rules as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

3. A client shall be responsible for the quality of road construction, reconstruction and repair works.

4. Responsibility for the technical condition of constructed, reconstructed and repaired roads after they have opened for use shall be borne by the owners of such roads.

 

Article 16 – Requirements related to environmental protection

1. Drivers shall ensure that the minimum impact is caused to the environment by vehicles in their ownership. 

2. Vehicles may not be washed in seas, lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and other surface water basins and in areas closer than 10 meters from their shores.

3. Road users may not:

a) litter or otherwise pollute roads and their adjacent territories;

b) pollute the environment with fuel and lubricants;

c) drive vehicles which are leaking harmful substances which pollute the environment.

4. For the purposes of traffic safety and environmental protection, the technical condition of a vehicle involved in traffic shall comply with the technical requirements imposed on vehicles by the legislation of Georgia.

 

Article 17 – Activities which are permitted only after obtaining permits, access, and approval from authorised bodies (agencies) or upon agreement with such bodies (agencies)

For the purposes of ensuring traffic safety, the following activities may be performed only after obtaining permits, access, and approval from authorised bodies (agencies) or upon agreement with such bodies (agencies):

a) preparing traffic regulation schemes;

b) preparing projects on the construction, reconstruction and repair of roads and road structures;

c) installing cabins or other objects directly next to roads, which may diminish the visibility and/or complicate the movement of drivers and pedestrians;

d) carrying passengers by regular routes (including regular passenger city transport services); ­

d1) carrying with a car – taxi (category M1) in the capital of Georgia;

e) holding public, sporting and other events on roads;

f) remodelling vehicles, installing special flashing and/or voice signals and/or megaphones, and/or giving special tones to vehicles, and/or drawing white oblique lines on the side body of vehicles;

g) driving oversize load (large) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles on roads;

h) driving vehicles that carry dangerous goods;

i) conducting any kind of road work which changes the existing traffic arrangement on any section of the road, and/or the established speed regime for vehicles and/or hinders the movement of road users;

j) performing other activities as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

Law of Georgia No 2264 of 4 May 2018 – website, 24.5.2018

 

Article 18 – Obligations of undertakings that operate vehicles and of persons whose job responsibilities involve the observance of traffic safety rules

1. Undertakings which operate vehicles in the territory of Georgia shall:

a) keep the work and rest schedule of drivers as established by the legislation of Georgia;

b) ensure the compliance of the technical condition of vehicles with the technical requirements of vehicles set forth by the legislation of Georgia, and not allow the operation of faulty vehicles;

c) not allow the movement of oversize load (large) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles and vehicles transporting dangerous goods in their ownership without obtaining the consent of authorised bodies (agencies) as provided for by the legislation of Georgia;

d) attach vehicle markings to operating vehicles in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 19(1) of this Law;

e) fulfil other requirements established by the legislation of Georgia.

2. Persons whose job responsibilities involve the issuance of permits for the operation of vehicles and who are responsible for the technical condition of vehicles shall not be allowed to:

a) permit the operation of technically faulty vehicles, the operation of which is prohibited, or the operation of vehicles which have been remodelled in violation of established procedures, or which have not been registered in the manner prescribed by legislation, and/or which have not undergone periodic technical inspection (except for the exclusions provided for by the legislation of Georgia);

b) give driving permission to persons who are under the influence of alcohol, drugs or psychotropic medicine and/or whose health condition does not comply with the requirements established for driving, and who poses a danger to traffic, or give driving permission to persons who do not have a driving licence of the appropriate category or subcategory.­

c) permit the movement of tracked vehicles on roads with asphalt and concrete surface.

3. Persons whose job responsibilities involve controlling the conditions of roads, railway level crossings and other road structures shall:­

a) maintain roads, railway level crossings and other road structures in a safe condition;

b) take measures to eliminate discovered obstructions in a timely manner, and/or prohibit or restrict traffic on certain sections of the road, if the use of such road may pose a danger to traffic.

4. Persons whose job responsibilities involve conducting road works shall:

a) ensure traffic safety on the sites of road works, and equip such sites and road construction machines, construction materials, structures, etc, which are not intended to be taken away from the carriageway, with appropriate traffic signs, indications and fencing appliances, and with additional red and yellow signal lights during the hours of darkness or in conditions of poor visibility;

b) let no person performing repair or construction works on roads at any time during the 24 hour period, without fluorescent and reflective clothing which is visible from long distances;

c) ensure safe traffic and the safe movement of pedestrians on roads when works are completed.

Law of Georgia No 1913 of 23 December 2017 – website, 28.12.2017

 

Article 19 – Vehicle markings

1. Drivers, and undertakings in the cases provided for by Article 18(1)(d) of this Law, are obliged to install the following vehicle markings on vehicles referred to in this paragraph:

a) articulated lorry – three horizontally positioned amber beacons shall be installed with an interval from 150 to 300mm on the roof of the cabins of articulated lorries or buses.

b) stud – an upward equilateral triangle with a white background and a red edge and with the black typographical sign ‘კ’ (the sides of the triangle shall not be less than 200mm, and the widths of the edge shall be 1/10 of the side), which shall be installed on the rear end of a vehicle on which the studded tires are installed.

c) dangerous goods – 400x300mm rectangular orange-coloured plates with a black 15 mm wide edge around it shall be installed in the front and at the rear end of a carrier of such cargo, and in the case of a tanker they shall be installed on the sides as well (the UN serial numbers that identify dangerous goods shall be indicated at the bottom of the plate, and the Hazard Identification Number (HIN) shall be indicated at the top of a plate. They shall be separated by a black 15 mm thick horizontal line crossing the plate at the point of its half height);

d) oversize (large) goods – a 400x400mm projections marker panel with red and white 50 mm wide diagonals and a reflective surface shall be installed in front and at the rear end of vehicles which carry oversize (large) cargo and of vehicles referred to in Article 47(13) of this Law;

e) long vehicle – a yellow rectangle no less than 1200x200mm in size and with a 40 mm wide red edge and a reflective surface shall be installed at the rear end of vehicles which carry oversize (large) load, and whose length with or without load exceeds 20m; it shall also be installed on a caravan which has two or more trailers. If a sign of such size cannot be installed, two similar signs no less than 600x200mm in size may be installed symmetrically on the axle of the vehicle;

f) children on board – a yellow square with a red edge (the side of the square shall be no less than 250mm, and the width of the edge shall be the 1/10th of a side), with the black symbol of the traffic sign No 1.24, shall be installed on the front and rear ends of a bus which transports groups of children;

g) hearing-impaired driver – a yellow circle with a diameter of 160mm which has three black circles with a diameter of 40mm, positioned at the angles of an equilateral triangle with imaginary points down, shall be installed on the front and rear ends of vehicles which are operated by hearing-impaired drivers as determined by a joint order of the Minister of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Labour, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia and the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia;­

h) training vehicle – an isosceles triangle with a white background and a red edge with the point of the triangle oriented upward and with the black typographical sign ‘ს’ (the sides of the triangle shall be not less than 200mm, and the width of the red border shall be 1/10th of its side), shall be installed on the front or the rear end of a training vehicle. In addition, a two-sided sign may be installed on the rooftop of a car;

i) speed limit – a reduced coloured version of traffic signs No 3.24, which displays the permitted speed (with a diameter of no less than 160mm and the width of the edge shall be 1/10th of the diameter) shall be installed on oversize load (large) vehicles or vehicles transporting dangerous goods, on the left side of the rear ends of vehicles operated by drivers with working experience of about 2 years, or where the maximum speed of vehicles on the basis of technical features is less than the speed determined by Article 33(7) of this Law.

2. The following vehicle markings may be installed on vehicles should a driver wish:

a) person with disabilities – a yellow square with 150 mm long side and a black silhouette of the traffic sign No 8.17 may be installed on the front and rear ends of vehicles which are operated by persons having severe and persistent disability status, or on vehicles which are used to transport such persons;

b) doctor – a blue square with a 140mm side displaying a 125mm diameter white circle with a red cross (the height shall be 90mm and the width of the line shall be 25mm) may be installed on vehicles operated by doctors;

c) distinguishing sign of the country of registration – a marking distinguishing vehicles registered in Georgia and engaged in international traffic. The marking shall have an oval shape with a length of axis not less than 0.175mX0.115m. The marking shall display the international code of Georgia ‘GE’. The height of the Latin letters shall be not less than 0.08m. They shall be displayed by means of 0.01 m wide lines. The letters shall be painted in black on a white background (the white background may be made of reflective material). Markings shall be installed on vehicles so as not to perceive them as registration numbers (state registration numbers) and so that they are clearly legible.

3. The vehicle markings set forth in this article are described in Annex 3 of this Law.

Law of Georgia No 3071 of 5 July 2018 – website, 11.7.2018

 

Chapter III – Traffic Rules

 

Article 20 – Rights and duties of separate road users

1. In accordance with procedures established by the legislation of Georgia the rights of road users are to:

a) move freely on roads without any obstructions;

b) obtain the following from the authorised state and local self-government bodies as well as from other authorised persons:

b.a) information on traffic safety conditions;

b.b) information on the grounds for limiting and stopping traffic;

b.c) information on products and service quality with respect to ensuring traffic safety;

b.d) first medical aid, rescue and other assistance during traffic accidents.

c) file a lawsuit against the actions of an authorised official in the field of traffic safety.

2. The exercise of rights by road users may not restrict or violate the rights of other road users. Road users shall not pose a danger to or hinder traffic flow by their actions. They may not pose a danger to other persons and damage state, public or private property.

3. Road users may not hinder traffic and/or pose a danger thereto by placing, scattering or leaving items on roads or by creating any other obstructions. A road user who has caused an obstruction or a threat thereof for objective reasons, shall immediately take necessary measures to clear the obstruction, and if such measures cannot be taken immediately, the road user shall warn other road users in a timely manner.

4. It is prohibited to let persons who are under the influence of alcohol, drugs or psychotropic medicine drive vehicles.

5. It is prohibited to let persons drive vehicles who do not have a valid driving licence for the appropriate category or subcategory of motor vehicle, or whose driving licence has been suspended, seized or revoked (cancelled) as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

6. It is prohibited to open the door of a vehicle unless the vehicle has fully stopped. The opening of a door may not hinder or endanger other road users. The doors may not be left open longer than is necessary for passengers to enter or leave a vehicle at the side of carriageways, cycle tracks or cycle lanes. Passengers may enter or leave a vehicle at the side of carriageways or behind vehicles only if such actions pose no danger to other road users.

7. Road users shall obey the requirements in the field of traffic safety determined by the legislation of Georgia.

 

Article 21 – Obligations of drivers and/or ski trail users

1. Any movable vehicle and caravan may be operated by a driver.

2. Drivers who are not fit to drive in accordance with the health requirements established for driving shall not be permitted to drive.

3. Drivers shall have the necessary knowledge and skills to drive vehicles. In the cases where the driving of vehicles is permitted only after obtaining an appropriate driving licence as provided for by the legislation of Georgia, drivers shall be prohibited from driving the motor vehicles of such category or subcategory without obtaining an appropriate driving licence, and they shall be prohibited from driving if such driving licence has been suspended, seized or revoked (cancelled).

4. Where the minimum age limit of drivers has been determined for granting a driving licence, drivers shall be permitted to drive vehicles only after attaining the minimum age required.

5. Drivers are obliged to know traffic rules and to fully understand factors which may influence their behaviour, for example: tiredness, sleepiness, the consumption of medicines and alcohol, etc.

6. Drivers are required to take extraordinary precautions towards such road users as pedestrians (especially children, elderly people and persons with disabilities) and cyclists. Drivers are obliged to give way to blind pedestrians walking with a white cane or a guide dog.

61. The violation of the safety rules on slopes or roads (trails) for skiing or skating shall be prohibited.

7. Drivers shall ensure that their vehicles do not hinder other road users with priority.

8. While operating vehicles drivers shall avoid any other action which is not related to driving. Drivers may not use mobile phones while driving vehicles. This prohibition does not apply where drivers use the earplugs of mobile phones or loud speakers (or the hands free mode), when they have both hands free for driving.

9. Drivers shall wear safety belts themselves while driving vehicles (except for vehicles whose design does not include safety belts) and shall ensure that all front passengers wear them as well. Drivers shall also ensure that back passengers who are at least 16 years old wear safety belts if they have children under the age of 3 years sitting on their laps.

10. The drivers of buses and lorries shall make sure that their vehicles may proceed safely before they move on bridges, flyovers, under high voltage power transmission lines and other similar places.

11. The drivers of mopeds, motorcycles, two wheeled electric scooters and bicycles shall move on roads so that all wheels of vehicles touch the surface of the ground while moving.

12. Drivers shall examine the technical fitness of their vehicles prior to departure.

13. Drivers shall be prohibited from driving in the case of a faulty braking system, steering wheel mechanism, towing equipment, or during the period of darkness when all low and high beams have broken down (switched off) simultaneously (or where there are no low and high beams at all) and/or with rear position lamps on roads with no artificial lighting or with poor visibility. The driving of vehicles with faulty windscreen wipers on the driver's side shall not be permitted when there is fog, rain or snow.

14. When faults other than those determined under paragraph 13 of this article occur during which the operation of a vehicle may pose a threat to traffic safety, drivers are obliged to rectify such faults directly at the place of occurrence and if such action is impossible, drivers shall relocate their vehicles to parking areas or to a repair shop by taking all necessary precautions as provided for by this Law.

15. The driving of vehicles under the influence of alcohol, drugs or psychotropic or other medicine which reduce reactions and attention, shall be prohibited.­

151. Skiing or skating on skiing and/or skating slopes and on roads (trails) by a trail user and the driving of snowmobiles under the influence of alcohol, drugs or psychotropic or other medicine that reduces reactions and attention, shall be prohibited.

16. If there are reasonable grounds for believing that drivers and/or ski trail users are under the influence of alcohol, drugs or psychotropic medicine, such drivers and/or ski trail users shall undergo a sobriety test at the request of an authorised person of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

17. Drivers of vehicles under the category or subcategory determined by Article 54 of this Law shall carry and, if so requested, present the following documents to an authorised person of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia:

a) a driving licence which is valid in the territory of Georgia for driving vehicles of the category or subcategory they are driving, as well as the registration documents of such vehicles (unless otherwise provided for by the legislation of Georgia);

b) a duly certified translation of the document(s) set forth in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, if the data in such document(s) are not in the Georgian or Latin alphabet;

c) a document certifying the authority to own, dispose of or use the said vehicle in the cases of crossing the state border or entering the territory of a country beyond the jurisdiction of Georgia in a vehicle the whose owner is absent.

18. Drivers of vehicles under the category or subcategory determined by Article 54 of this Law engaged in international traffic in the territory of Georgia are obliged to attach the state registration number and the distinguishing sign of the country (except for the cases when the distinguishing sign of the country of registration is shown on the state registration number), where the said vehicles have been registered. In addition, drivers of vehicles under the category or subcategory determined by Article 54 of this Law shall carry and, if so requested, present the following documents to an authorised person of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia:

a) a driving licence which is valid in the territory of Georgia for driving vehicles of the category or subcategory they are driving, as well as the registration documents of such vehicles;

b) a duly certified translation of the document(s) set forth in sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph, if the data in such document(s) are not in the Georgian or Latin alphabet;

c) a document certifying the authority to own, dispose of or use the said vehicle in the cases of crossing the state border or entering the territory of the country beyond the jurisdiction of Georgia in the vehicle whose owner is absent.

19. Drivers engaged in international traffic shall carry a technically sound controlling device (a tachograph) and maintain work and/or rest schedules in accordance with the European Agreement concerning the Work of Crews of Vehicles Engaged in International Road Transport (AETR). 

20. Except for the documents under paragraphs 17 and 18 of this article, drivers of oversize load (large) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles and vehicles transporting dangerous goods, shall carry and present, if so requested, to an authorised person of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, a document certifying the agreement with the authorised body (entity) to drive or permit to drive such vehicle.

21. Drivers shall obey the legitimate request of an authorised person of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

22. Drivers shall strictly observe their obligations under the legislation of Georgia.

Law of Georgia No 4789 of 19 February 2016 – website, 7.3.2016

Law of Georgia No 711 of 21 April 2017 – website, 10.5.2017

 

Article 22 – General requirements applied to drovers

1. All pack, draft and mount animals as well as drove animals shall have a drover to direct them on a permanent basis. Droving on roads shall be permitted after the age of 16.

2. Cattle as well as animal-powered vehicles shall be driven closest to the edge of a carriageway or on its shoulder (if this does not hinder pedestrians) in one line in the direction of traffic.

3. Animal-powered vehicles shall have a well-operating braking system and anti-roll bars as determined by its design and it shall be equipped with lights as provided for by this Law.

4. Herds of pack and mount animals, as well as columns of animal-powered vehicles, shall be divided into groups while moving on carriageways, with no more than 10 pack and mount animals and 5 animal-powered vehicles in each group. The distance between the given groups shall be 80-100 metres in order to make overtaking easier.

5. The drovers of animal-powered vehicles shall walk animals on a leash when they move to a territory of poor visibility from adjacent territories or side roads.­

6. As a rule, cattle shall be driven on the road during daylight.

7. A herd of cattle shall be divided into groups (depending on the number of drovers) while driving them across a railway level crossing in order to ensure safe driving.

8. A drover may not:

a) leave cattle on the road unattended;

 b) drive cattle across a railway level crossing, except for specifically selected locations, during the hours of darkness or poor visibility (except for cattle crossings located on different levels);

c) drive cattle on asphalt and concrete roads where other types of roads exist;

d) conduct other unlawful activities determined by the legislation of Georgia.

9. If an animal has been injured or killed while being unattended and while being in violation of grazing and droving rules as a result of a traffic accident, the driver shall be released from the liability to compensate for any damage incurred as a result of the injury or death of the animal.

 

Article 23 – The general duties of passengers

1. Passengers shall enter and leave vehicles only after such vehicles have fully stopped, on the side of a pavement or a shoulder, and if it is impossible, on the side of a carriageway, if they do not hinder other road users.

2. Passengers may not:

a) distract a driver by drawing their attention to other activities while driving;­

b) obstruct the driver while driving;­

c) stand, sit or put loads on the flat body of a lorry while travelling;

d) open the door of a vehicle in motion;

f) conduct other unlawful actions determined by the legislation of Georgia.

 

 Article 24 – Requirements with regard to the movement of pedestrians

 1. Except for the cases under this Law, pedestrians may not walk on carriageways. Pedestrians shall show due care when walking along the carriageway and may not unreasonably hinder or clutter traffic flow.

 2. If there is a pedestrian path, a pavement or a verge at the edge of a carriageway for the movement of pedestrians they shall use it and observe necessary precautionary measures, and:

a) pedestrians who are carrying a large-scale item may walk on the verge of a road if they would otherwise hinder other pedestrians;

b) a group of pedestrians, who are walking together in an organised manner or demonstrating may walk on a carriageway provided they walk in the direction of the vehicle movement on the right side, with no more than 4 persons abreast. The group of pedestrians shall be accompanied by persons with red flags, or, during the hours of darkness or poor visibility, by lights switched on (white-in front, and red-at the back).­­

3. Paragraph 2 of this article shall not apply to persons with disabilities in wheelchairs. They shall have the right to move at the edge of the carriageway under all circumstances.

4. Pedestrians may walk on carriageways if there are no pedestrian paths, pavements or verges for pedestrians. Pedestrians shall have the right to walk on cycle tracks if there are any and if the intensity of traffic is appropriate; however, they shall not hinder the flow of bicycles and mopeds.

5. On dual carriageways located outside built-up areas, where there are no central reservations and pavements, pedestrians shall use a shoulder against the flow of traffic, or if there is no such shoulder, or if it is impossible to use it, they shall take the left side of the carriageway and move against the flow of traffic (except where movement on the right side of the carriageway is safer under the given circumstances). Pedestrians relocating cycles, mopeds or motorcycles and persons with disabilities moving in wheelchairs shall keep to the right side of the carriageway while travelling. Pedestrians shall walk in line to the extent possible while moving on the carriageway (except when they are marching) in order to ensure traffic safety, especially in conditions of poor visibility and high intensity of traffic flow.

6. Pedestrians shall keep close to the verge of the carriageway to the extent possible while walking on the carriageway in the cases provided for by paragraphs 2, 4 and 5 of this article.

7. When using a pedestrian crossing:

a) if there are pedestrian traffic signals on the pedestrian crossing, pedestrians shall obey the instructions of the flashing warning lights of the traffic signals;

b) if there are no pedestrian traffic signals, or if the pedestrian traffic signals are out of order on the pedestrian crossing, but traffic is regulated by traffic lights or traffic wardens, pedestrians may not cross the carriageway while the traffic signals or the signals given by traffic wardens permit the flow of traffic on the carriageway.

8. Pedestrians shall cross a carriageway using a pedestrian crossing, including aboveground and undergr­ound crossings, and where such crossings do not exist, they shall cross the carriageway using a junction or an area along the pavement or the shoulder.­­ Pedestrians may cross the road perpendicular to the carriageway axis at the section, where there is no central reservation or road fence and the road can be clearly seen from both sides, and if there is no pedestrian crossing or junction within the visibility area. Where a pedestrian crossing is not provided, pedestrians may not cross a carriageway until they determine the distance and speed of the approaching vehicle and until they assure themselves that the crossing of the carriageway is safe.

 9. When intending to cross a carriageway, pedestrians shall not leave a vehicle in front of stopped vehicles or other obstructions which limit visibility unless they make sure there are no vehicles approaching.

10. Pedestrians may not pause after crossing a carriageway, or pause while crossing a carriageway, and stop on a carriageway, unless such actions are necessary for traffic safety. Pedestrians, who have not been able to cross the road in time, shall stop on an island, or a central reservation, or a line, and resume crossing the road only after they feel confident that this is safe; while crossing the road they shall also take into account the signals of traffic lights or traffic wardens.

11. Pedestrians shall abstain from crossing a carriageway when there is a vehicle with a special blue flashing beacon and a special voice signal approaching, while those standing on the carriageway shall give way to such vehicles or vacate the carriageway immediately.

12. Pedestrians, who travel by means of roller blades, skateboards, scooters, sledges or other similar vehicles, shall not pose a danger to road users moving in wheelchairs or to pedestrians moving on pavements or pedestrian paths.

13. Passengers shall wait for mini-buses and taxis only on boarding platforms uplifted higher than the level of carriageways, and if there are no such platforms, they may do so on pavements or shoulders. Going out to a carriageway from an uplifted boarding platform (stop) to board a vehicle shall be permitted only after the vehicle has fully stopped.­ After leaving a vehicle, pedestrians shall vacate the carriageway immediately.

14. Pedestrians shall not walk on or along the central reservation of a dual carriageway, unless there is a pavement provided.

15. Regulated and unregulated pedestrian crossings shall be defined similar to those provided by Article 36(2) if this Law.

 

Article 25 – Drivers’ code of conduct in relation to pedestrians, and certain circumstances to be taken into account while driving vehicles

1. Drivers may not act so as to pose a danger to pedestrians while driving.

2. The following requirements shall be met with regard to pedestrian crossings in accordance with the requirements provided for by Articles 21(6), 33(2) and Article 34(11) of this Law:

a) where traffic is regulated by traffic lights or traffic wardens, drivers shall stop in front of the pedestrian crossing or a horizontal marking in front of it when the stop signal is given, and after they are permitted to proceed, they shall not create obstructions or pose a danger to pedestrians crossing the pedestrian crossing. If a driver intends to make a turn in order to enter another road at the entrance of which there is a pedestrian crossing, he/she shall turn at a low speed, and shall stop, if required, and give way to pedestrians crossing the road or intending to cross the road.

b) if traffic is regulated neither by traffic lights nor by traffic wardens, drivers shall reduce speed significantly while approaching pedestrian crossings in order not to pose a danger to pedestrians crossing or intending to cross the road, and shall stop, and if required, give way to them.

3. Where there are no pedestrian crossings marked with relevant road markings, traffic signs, and with no traffic lights as required by Articles 20(2) and 34(11) of this Law, drivers, who make a turn in order to enter another road, shall give way to pedestrians crossing the road. Drivers shall take extraordinary precautions with regard to pedestrians who are crossing a carriageway in order to board a mini-bus or with regard to pedestrians who are leaving mini-buses.

4. Drivers intending to bypass mini-buses from the side of the proceeding traffic, which are standing on an appropriately marked stop, shall reduce speed and stop where necessary in order to ensure the safety of passengers boarding and leaving public transport vehicles.

5. Divers of vehicles, who have special rights to enter pedestrianised areas in the cases provided for by this Law, shall take extraordinary precautions and move at a low speeds in order to be able to stop if required.

6. Drivers may not enter pedestrian crossings unless they are sure that they will not be made to stop.

7. Drivers shall give way to pedestrians while entering a road from an adjacent territory or while entering such territory from the road.

8. When moving past a vehicle which has stopped on the road, drivers shall take extraordinary precautions towards vehicles with their external light devices switched on or with their doors open in order to prevent, in a timely manner, where necessary, the danger resulting from the sudden appearance of pedestrians and/or children on the road.

9. If a mini-bus stops or slows down in front of an unregulated pedestrian crossing, drivers of vehicles moving in adjacent lanes shall resume driving only after they make sure that there is no pedestrian in front of the mini-bus which has stopped.

10. Drivers shall take into consideration the following matters while driving:

a) drivers shall slow down and increase the distance between their vehicles and the vehicles moving in front of them in the cases of inadequate or limited visibility;

b) while moving from the light to the dark segments of the road, the eyes become accustomed to darkness gradually, due to which possible obstructions in front of the drivers might be difficult to see;

c) road users may not notice each other clearly while driving at night or in poorly or unevenly lit sections of the road;

d) drivers shall try their best to avoid braking, and changing the speed and direction of vehicles, on icy patches of road. In addition, drivers should understand that roads are frozen mostly on bridges, underpasses and flyovers;

e) while driving in rain and snow, braking time and distance increase, and precipitation reduces visibility, and drivers shall slow down and increase the distance between their vehicles and the vehicles moving in front of them;

f) the surface of the road becomes muddy in the rain and creates the threat of skidding, due to which drivers shall slow down by using smooth braking;

g) drivers shall take extraordinary precautions with regard to pedestrians while driving in the rain, in order to avoid a threat to safety because of their speed; 

h) hard braking and/or acceleration in turnings (especially on a wet surface) may result in losing control over the vehicle;

i) if there are puddles on roads, drivers shall take into consideration that the driving and braking of a vehicle may become more complicated and that the probability of skidding may increase (especially in the cases of part-worn tyres or when driving at high speed);

j) if drivers feel tiredness while driving, they are advised to stop and rest, or if possible, let other drivers drive;

k) if drivers notice that drivers of other vehicles act aggressively and in a provocative manner, they shall keep calm and control their own vehicles;

l) while overtaking, the threat of a traffic accident most commonly occurs where the distance between vehicles is ignored and drivers do not show enough attention with regard to vehicles moving in the opposite direction;

m) driving fast for a long period reduces the ability of drivers to focus on and to sense high speed;

n) drivers shall drive their vehicles calmly and shall not show any aggression and shall not attempt to show themselves as having the advantage in the traffic;

o) in normal traffic the time required to cover the distance between vehicles moving in a line shall be not less than two seconds in residential areas, and in non-residential areas it shall be not less than three seconds. This rule shall not apply to cases where, for the purpose of overtaking, vehicles change lanes and the drivers of such vehicles have already given the respective signal informing of the intention to overtake; this rule also shall not apply to the cases provided for by sub-paragraph (p) of this paragraph;

p) while driving on icy roads in residential areas, the time required to cover the distance between vehicles moving in a line shall be not less than six seconds, and in non-residential areas it shall be not less than nine seconds. This rule shall not apply to cases where, for the purpose of overtaking, vehicles change lanes and the drivers of such vehicles have already given the respective signal informing of the intention of drivers to overtake.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

 

 Article 26 – Additional requirements for ensuring the safety of children

1. Drivers shall take into account that the level of the development of children is not enough for them to fully analyse traffic conditions.

2. Drivers shall take extraordinary precautions and move at a speed that allows them to prevent danger and where necessary gives them opportunity to stop without hard braking, if they see a child on or next to a road or a stopped bus with the vehicle marking ‘Children on Board’.

3. Children may be transported by vehicles only in a seated position on seats given in the structural design of vehicles. Children may not be transported in a standing position.

4. The vehicle marking ‘Children on Board’ shall be attached to a bus transporting a group of children. A driver shall switch on hazard warning lights when the bus stops. Adults accompanying children shall ensure that children board and leave the bus and cross the carriageway safely.

5. A group of children may move only on pavements or pedestrian paths, and if there are not any, on road shoulders. A group of children may move on unlit roads in residential areas and on roads in non-residential areas only during the daylight. On a dual carriageway with no central reservation a group of children shall move on a shoulder against the flow of traffic. While moving a group of children shall be accompanied by an adult guide. Moreover, a group of children shall be divided into rows with no more than two children in each row. The person accompanying a group of children shall ensure the safe movement of children. While moving on the road the person accompanying a group of children is advised to wear a reflective safety vest. Drivers are obliged to give way to children crossing a carriageway if the person accompanying a group of children gives signals to them.

6. Children under the age of 12 may not be transported:

a) in the front seat of a car;

b) by mopeds and motorcycles;

c) by small quadricycle with a design speed of more than 25km/h, if the design of the said vehicle gives no opportunity to use a special pram, car seat or a respective holding arrangement to carry children;

d) by motor tricycle or quadricycle, if the design of the said vehicle gives no opportunity to use a special pram, car seat or a respective holding arrangement to carry children. 

 7. Except for the cases provided for by paragraph 8 of this article, children under the age of three shall be transported in the back seat of a car by a special pram, car seat or a respective holding arrangement which suits the height and weight of the child.

8. Children under the age of three may be transported in a child car seat or on the lap of a person sitting in the back seat of a car who is no less than 16 years old. The said passenger shall wear a safety belt. The passenger shall not be permitted to have more than one child sitting on his/her lap.

9. Children under the age of six may not be left unattended in a parked vehicle.

Law of Georgia No 711 of 21 April 2017 – website, 10.5.2017

 

Article 27 – Obligations of drivers involved in traffic accidents

1. Drivers who are involved in traffic accidents shall:

a) stop the vehicle immediately (not drive away), and switch on hazard warning lights;

b) make sure that nobody has been injured or killed in the traffic accident;

c) notify immediately an authorised agency within the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia and if there is no urgent necessity for him to visit a healthcare facility or to transport an injured person, stay at the scene of the traffic accident and wait for the authorised person to arrive;

d) take relevant measures to ensure traffic safety at the site of the traffic accident, and try to change nothing at the site of the traffic accident or destroy evidence which may be helpful for the identification of liability, and record the surnames of eye witnesses;

e) take relevant measures to provide first medical aid to persons injured in the traffic accident, call emergency medical services, and in the case of urgent necessity transport the injured to the nearest healthcare facility by other vehicles moving in the same direction, and if it is impossible, transport the injured himself/herself, except for cases when there are reasonable grounds for believing that transportation may harm the injured person.

2. If nobody has been injured as a result of the traffic accident the drivers, after having taken into account the present circumstances, may draw up a scheme of the accident on the basis of mutual agreement in advance, sign it and go to the nearest subdivision of the patrol police station to register the fact.

3. If in the circumstances under paragraph 1(c) and (e) of this article, a driver is forced to leave the scene of the traffic accident in order to visit a healthcare facility, he/she is obliged to disclose his/her identity at the healthcare facility (by presenting an identity document and vehicle registration documents) and, if possible, return to the scene of the traffic accident.

 

Article 28 – The interconnectedness of the signals given by traffic wardens, the flashing warning lights of traffic lights, traffic signs and road markings

1. Road users shall obey the requirements of signals given by traffic wardens, the flashing warning lights of traffic lights, traffic signs and road markings even if they believe that such requirements contravene traffic rules.

2. The signals given by traffic wardens shall have priority over the requirements of the flashing warning lights of traffic lights, traffic signs and road markings, and over the requirements of traffic rules. Prohibiting and guide traffic signs shall remain in force when a traffic warden regulates the traffic at a junction, except where the traffic warden specifically instructs road users to ignore the said signs.

3. The requirements of the flashing warning lights of traffic lights have priority over the requirements of traffic signs and road markings determining their priority during the traffic.

4. If the requirements of traffic signs and road markings contradict each other, a driver shall obey the requirements of traffic signs. 

5. If there are temporary road markings (‘temporary road markings’) installed on temporary portable supports or on the vehicles of the organisation providing road works, whose requirements contravene the requirements of the permanently installed road markings of the road, drivers shall obey the requirements of the temporary road markings. 

 

Article 29 – Traffic lights

1. Traffic lights are used to regulate traffic by means of coloured light signals as well as to mark dangerous sections of roads. Traffic light signals are red, amber (yellowish), green or white. Depending on the scope of application traffic lights may have one, two, three or four colour light signals; moreover, the colour light signals may be arranged vertically, horizontally or in a T-shape. In addition, an arrow(s), pedestrian silhouettes or a bicycle (cyclist) contour may be displayed on a colour light signal(s) of traffic lights. A digital electric panel may be used to give extra information to road users regarding the time (seconds) remaining until the red, amber and green signals change. A voice signal may be added to pedestrian traffic signals to give information to blind pedestrians about when to cross the carriageway. Where voice signals are provided on traffic lights, short beeps shall indicate to pedestrians that the lights are changing to a red light signal which prohibits crossing, and a continuous beep shall indicate that the lights are changing to a green light signal which gives permission to cross.

2. Traffic light signals have the following meanings:

a) the red light or flashing red light prohibits any traffic from proceeding;

b) the red and the amber lights switched on simultaneously prohibit traffic from proceeding and indicate that the lights are about to change to a green light;

c) the amber light prohibits traffic from proceeding, except for the cases under paragraph 4 of this article, and indicates that the lights are about to change;

d) the yellow light gives permission to proceed and indicates a non-regulated road intersection, or the existence of a crossing for pedestrians or cyclists, or a the possible danger;

e) the green light gives permission to proceed;

f) the green flashing light gives permission to proceed and notifies road users that the lights are about to change to a stop signal.

3. A traffic light with three round light signals arranged vertically or horizontally shall be used for the regulation of traffic on carriageways. The coloured light signals on a vertically arranged traffic light have the following sequence: the red light on top, the amber light in the middle, and the green light on the bottom; moreover, a traffic light, on the level of the green light signal from the right and/or left side, may have one or two additional lights with a green arrow(s). The coloured light signals on a horizontal traffic light have the following sequence: the red light on the right, the amber light in the middle, and the green light on the left; moreover, a traffic light may have one or two additional lights with a green arrow(s) positioned to the left and/or to the right. If traffic lights are located above each lane of the carriageway of the same direction, each traffic light shall apply only to the lane above which it is located.

4. For the regulation of traffic on carriageway lanes, where traffic flow changes to the opposite direction, reversible traffic lights with an X-shaped red light signal, and a green light signal in the form of an arrow pointing down, shall be used. Such a signal and arrow prohibit or give permission to proceed in the lane above which it is located. The amber or white light signal in the form of an arrow which is diagonally directed downward and inclined to the left or right side may be added to the main light signals of a reversible traffic light. When such signal is lit, it indicates that the coloured light signals are about to change, and the obligation to take the lane indicated by it. Where the light signals of a reversible traffic light, located above a lane which is marked on both sides with the road marking No. 1.9, are turned off, this shall indicate a prohibition against using the said lane.

5. For the regulation of traffic flow of mini-buses on specifically selected lanes, four round light signals of yellowish colour arranged in a ‘T’ shape shall be used. It is permitted to proceed only when a bottom and one or several top light signals are lit simultaneously, from which the left signal gives permission to proceed to the left, the signal located in the middle gives permission to go straight, and the right signal gives permission to proceed to the right. It shall be prohibited to proceed when only the top three light signals are lit.

6. For the regulation of the movement of pedestrians and traffic of two wheel electric scooters, traffic lights with two round light signals arranged vertically shall be used. The light signals have the following arrangement: the red light on the top, and the green light on the bottom. Where there are no such traffic lights on crossings, pedestrians and riders of two wheel electric scooters shall obey the traffic light signals. Moreover, they shall be given permission to proceed only when the movement of traffic is not permitted.

7. At the intersection of cycle tracks with a main road, cyclists, and riders of mopeds and two wheel electric scooters, who ride on cycle tracks and cycle lanes, shall obey the traffic light signals designed for the regulation of cycle traffic. For the regulation of cycle traffic, traffic lights with two or three round light signals positioned vertically shall be used. The light signals have the following arrangement: the red light on the top, the amber light in the middle (if any), and the green light at the bottom. For the regulation of cycle traffic, reduced shape traffic lights with round light signals and an extra rectangular (200x200mm) white marking panel with a black silhouette of a cycle may be used. Where there are no such traffic lights at the intersections with carriageways, the road users referred to above shall obey the procedures established for pedestrians as provided for by paragraph 6 of this article.

8. On railway level crossings, at the entrances to bascule bridges, at piers for ships and ferries, at exits for fire engines and in the places where roads are intersected by the trajectory of flying machines at low altitudes, single support, mono-directional light signals arranged on the same elevation are used, which have two lights flashing in turn, or only a red or only a yellow light signal flashing, whereby the red light signal prohibits the crossing of the stop line, and where there is no stop line, it prohibits the crossing of the traffic light, and the yellow light signal gives drivers permission to proceed, although they are obliged to take extraordinary precautions. When coloured light signals are not lit, traffic is allowed only when there is no train (locomotive, trolley) approaching the level crossing within the visibility area.

9. At railway level crossings voice signals can be given in addition to flashing red light signals in order to notify road users that no traffic on the railway level crossing is permitted.

10. Green, amber and red light signals with images of arrow(s) have the same meaning as the respective colour signals without arrows, but they apply only to the direction(s) indicated by such arrows. Moreover, the arrow permitting a left turn, also gives permission to make a U-turn, if it is not prohibited by other traffic signs or road markings. The arrow on the green light signal in the additional section of the traffic light has the same meaning. If the light signal of the additional section of the traffic light is not lit, it indicates that movement towards the direction regulated by this light is prohibited.

11. The main green light with a contour arrow(s) indicates the possible existence of an additional section of the traffic light and indicates other permitted traffic directions which are different from those permitted under the coloured light signals of such section.

12. Road users shall obey the requirements of coloured light signals even if such requirements contradict those of traffic signs and road markings determining priority to pass.

13. Drivers are obliged to stop at a stop line (or at the traffic sign 7.16) when the stop signal of the traffic light (except for reversible traffic lights) is lit, and where there are no such signs, they are obliged to stop:

a) at a road intersection, in front of the crosswalk of the road (in accordance with article 36(3)(e) of this Law), so that no obstructions to pedestrians are created;

b) in front of a railway level crossing, in accordance with article 39(3) of this Law;

c) other places, in front of traffic lights or traffic wardens, so that no obstructions are created to vehicles or pedestrians who have been given the permission to proceed.

14. Drivers who are unable to stop without braking sharply when the amber light signal is lit in the places provided for by paragraph 13 of this article may keep driving. Pedestrians, who are standing on a carriageway when the stop light signal is lit, shall vacate it, and if this is impossible, they shall stand on a central reservation separating the opposite flows of vehicles.

 

Article 30 – Traffic wardens and their signals

1. A traffic warden shall regulate traffic where, for the purposes of traffic safety, it needs to be regulated in a manner which is different from the requirements of coloured traffic light signals, traffic signs and/or road markings (or if there are not any, in a manner that is different from traffic rules), or where the existing traffic regulation cannot ensure smooth traffic flow at a particular period of time, or in the cases of traffic obstructions or traffic jams, as well as in other cases determined by the legislation of Georgia.

2. Traffic wardens shall be clearly visible and distinguished from a long distance at any time of the day or night. The signals given by a traffic warden shall be clearly visible and explicit to all road users. Traffic wardens shall give signals to drivers in a timely manner, so that they do not pose a danger and/or hinder other road users.

3. Persons authorised by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia shall regulate traffic. Traffic may also be regulated by the following persons within the scopes of authority granted by the legislation of Georgia:

a) persons authorised by the Ministry of Defence of Georgia during the travelling of motorcades of the Ministry of Defence of Georgia;

b) the staff of the Special State Protection Service of Georgia, where circumstances determined by the legislation of Georgia exist;

c) rescue teams and other persons who are engaged in rescue operations, to ensure the completion of rescue operations;

d) the members of emergency medical service teams, while providing first medical aid;

e) persons accompanying a group of children (guides), to ensure the safety of children;

f) the staff of the railway service, on railway level crossings;

g) organisers of ferry services, in harbours;

h) owners of roads or other persons, who have been appointed by authorised bodies ( agencies) as temporary traffic wardens, during road works, or pre-arranged events, or in the cases of other obstructions to traffic or during the temporary closure of roads;

i) persons accompanying oversize load (large) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles or vehicles carrying hazardous goods, in order to prevent any obstructions to traffic or to prevent a danger.

4. Road users shall obey the requirements of the signals given by traffic wardens immediately, even if such requirements contradict those of warning signals of traffic lights, traffic signs and road markings and the requirements of other traffic rules.

5. The signals given by a traffic warden have the following meanings:

a) an arm raised upright – the given gesture for all road users means 'Attention, Stop', except for those drivers who are no longer able to stop by braking sharply and with sufficient safety. However, if such a signal is given at a road intersection, drivers who are already on the intersection may continue driving. Pedestrians, standing on a carriageway while the signal is given, shall vacate it, and where this is impossible, they shall stand on a central reservation separating the opposite flows of vehicles;

b) arms outstretched horizontally or arms lowered – the given gesture means “Stop” to all road users, who, whatever their the traffic direction, are driving in a direction which crosses the one indicated by the outstretched arm or arms of the traffic warden; however, trams shall have the right to move straight from the right and left sides of the traffic warden, and wheeled vehicles shall have the right to move straight and right, and pedestrians shall have the right to cross a carriageway;­

c) the right arm outstretched forward – the given gesture means ‘Stop’ for all drivers moving from the right or the back of the traffic warden; however, trams shall have the right to move left from the left side of traffic warden, and wheeled vehicles shall have the right to move in all directions. Any transportation shall have the right to move left from the front side of the traffic warden. Pedestrians shall have the right to cross a carriageway behind the back of the traffic warden;­

d) swinging red light – the given gesture means 'Stop' for all road users towards whom the light is directed.

6. In addition to the signals specified under paragraph 5 of this article, traffic wardens shall have the right to give other explicit signals to drivers and pedestrians by using hand gestures.

7. Drivers, who have been prohibited from proceeding by traffic wardens by means of a signal, shall stop at a 'Stop' line (or at the traffic sign 7.16), and where there is no 'Stop' line, drivers shall stop:

a) at a junction – In front of a crosswalk (in accordance with Article 36(3)(e) of this Law), so that no obstructions are created for pedestrians;

b) in front of railway level crossings, in accordance with Article 39(3) of this Law;

c) at other places, in front of traffic lights or traffic wardens, so that no obstructions are created for vehicles and pedestrians which have been permitted to proceed.

8. If traffic wardens give signals to vehicles to stop by means of megaphones or gestures directed to vehicles, drivers shall stop on the spot indicated by the traffic wardens.

9. Traffic wardens shall give signals by means of:

a) a traffic baton striped black and white;

b) a reflective red disk;

c) a disk displaying the traffic sign ‘No Driving’;

d) hand gestures;

e) a red or yellow flag;

f) the moving of a red light.

10. Additional signals given by traffic wardens by blowing a whistle are intended to attract the attention of road users.

 

Article 31 – Positions of vehicles on the roads

1. The traffic on all roads in the territory of Georgia shall be right-hand.

2. Except where there are urgent cases, drivers shall travel only on the roads, carriageways, lanes or paths, which are intended for road users of their category and/or subcategory.

3. The number of lanes for wheeled vehicles shall be determined on the basis of road markings and/or the traffic signs No. 5.15.1, 5.15.2, 5.15.7 and 5.15.8, and where there are no road markings and traffic signs, the number of lanes shall be determined directly by drivers by taking into account the width of carriageways, the dimensions of vehicles and the necessary interval between them. On dual carriageways with a central reservation, a carriageway located to the left of the central reservation shall be construed as the opposite direction, and where there is no central reservation, a half of the width of the carriageway located to the left shall be construed as the opposite direction. Where there is a level crossing tramway in the middle of the carriageway, an imaginary line in-between the tramways moving opposite shall be construed as a crash barrier. The right hand lane on dual carriageways with three lanes and road markings shall be construed as the preceding traffic, unless otherwise provided for by traffic regulation.

4. Except for the cases provided for by this Law, drivers of mopeds, two wheeled electric scooters, bicycles or other unpowered vehicles may use any appropriately designed one-way traffic roadside, if there are no special lanes or paths intended for them, and unless it creates obstructions for other road users.

5. Except for the cases provided for by this Law, drivers of vehicles, to the extent permitted by circumstances, shall keep to the right hand edge of the carriageway.

6. Drivers of vehicles shall be prohibited from using the opposite carriageway on roads with two or three carriageways, unless otherwise provided for by traffic regulation.

7. Drivers of vehicles shall not use a lane at the edge of the carriageway while driving on dual carriageways with three lanes (except where the road marking 1.9 is present). If on roads with three lanes the middle lane serves as a dual carriageway, drivers may take the said lane only for the purposes of overtaking, bypassing obstructions, or for turning left or reversing.

8. On dual carriageways with at least four lanes, drivers may not take the lanes which are intended for opposite traffic.

9. In accordance with the requirements under Article 34 of this Law, if a lane has a road marking indicating that only slow-moving vehicles are permitted, drivers of such vehicles shall use the said lane.

10. In accordance with the requirements under paragraphs 11 and 13 of this article, and Articles 38(1) and 43(2) of this Law, in residential areas drivers may chose the most convenient lane among the proceeding traffic lanes. Changing lanes shall be allowed only for the purposes of turning right or left, reversing, overtaking or stopping.

11. Drivers shall keep to the right edge of the carriageway as closely as possible in non-residential areas, and in residential areas drivers shall drive likewise on the section of the carriageway where they are allowed to drive with a speed of more than 80 km/h. Drivers of vehicles shall not take the left lane, where the right lane is empty, except where there is a need to bypass obstructions, turn left or reverse.

12. Unless otherwise provided for by this Law, where there are three or more lanes intended for the proceeding traffic on any carriageway, drivers may take the left lane on the edge of the carriageway only in the case of heavy traffic, when the other lanes are occupied, and also for the purposes of overtaking, turning left or making a U-turn; in the case of lorries, only for the purposes of turning left or making a U-turn. Proceeding to the left lane of a single carriageway for the purposes of stopping the vehicle and/or for parking shall be permitted only in compliance with the requirements under Article 37(2) of this Law.

13. Slow-moving vehicles shall use a right lane at the edge of the carriageway, except for the cases where it is a necessary to bypass obstructions, to overtake, to turn left or to make a U-turn.­­ The prohibition under this paragraph shall not apply to road maintenance and utility service vehicles equipped with special flashing orange or amber rotating beacons, when they are engaged in road works.

14. Mopeds and/or motorcycles without side-cars may ride in two lines in a proceeding traffic lane.

15. In accordance with the requirements set out in Article 32(6) of this Law, travelling shall be allowed on a proceeding tramway which is located on the same level as the left carriageway, if all proceeding traffic lanes are occupied, or where it is necessary to bypass obstructions, to overtake, to turn left or to make a U-turn. However, where obstructions would be created for trams, travelling along a preceding tramway shall not be allowed.

16. If a carriageway is divided into lanes by road markings, drivers shall proceed in the marked lanes. Crossing the road markings (the broken white lines) shall be allowed only where it is necessary to bypass obstructions, overtake, turn left or right, stop or reverse.

17. Drivers who intend to enter the opposite lane of a carriageway while making a turn, shall take the right lane on the edge of the carriageway while leaving the intersection of carriageways. Moving into another traffic lane shall be permitted only after drivers make sure that proceeding in such lane is allowed.

18. Except for the cases provided for in Articles 37(1) and 43(2) of this Law, motor vehicles shall be prohibited from moving in road shoulders, cycle lanes, cycle paths, pavements and pedestrian paths. Motor vehicles carrying goods may make short cuts towards undertakings and facilities located next to road shoulders, cycle lanes, cycle paths, pavements and pedestrian paths on the precondition that traffic safety measures are observed, and where there is no other opportunity to perform the said action. The prohibition under this paragraph shall not apply to road maintenance and utility service vehicles.

19. On a carriageway whose outer lane(s) or cycle paths are intended for the movement of vehicles of specific categories, the term 'the edge of the carriageway' shall mean the remaining edge of the carriageway for other road users.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

 

Article 32 – Proceeding and general requirements related to manoeuvres

1. Drivers, who have decided to perform a manoeuvre, shall start the planned manoeuvre only after they make sure that this will not pose a danger to any road users who are moving behind, in front of or next to them both in the proceeding and opposite traffic by taking into account their position, direction and speed.

2. Drivers shall switch on appropriate turn indicators for the respective traffic direction on their vehicles, and if they are out of order, they shall give a warning by an appropriate hand gesture. The left arm outstretched horizontally or the right arm stretched to the side and bent at the elbow making a 90-degree angle shall mean the signals of turning left or making a U-turn. The right arm outstretched horizontally or the left arm stretched to the side and bent at the elbow making a 90-degree angle shall mean a turn right signal. The left or the right hand outstretched vertically shall mean a brake signal. The turn indicators or hand signals shall be given in a timely manner, before the manoeuvring starts and shall be stopped immediately after the manoeuvring ends (hand signalling may be stopped directly before starting to manoeuvre). Moreover, signals may not mislead other road users. The giving of signals by means of turn indicators or hands shall not privilege and relieve drivers from the obligation to take extraordinary precautionary measures. 

3. Drivers shall give way to vehicles and pedestrians moving on the road while entering the road from adjacent territories, and while leaving the road they shall give way to pedestrians, cyclists, and moped and two wheeled electric scooter riders whose way they cut across.

4. When changing between lanes of the same direction, drivers shall give way to vehicles already moving in the same direction on the lane they intend to enter. If drivers who move in the same direction change lanes at the same time and their trajectory is intersected, priority shall be given to the driver of the vehicle moving on the right side.

5. Except for the case when a turning manoeuvre is conducted to enter a roundabout, before turning left or right, as well as before making a U-turn, drivers shall, in a timely manner, occupy the edge of the carriageway, which is intended for the proceeding traffic.

6. If there is a tramway on the level of the carriageway on the left side of the same direction, drivers may turn left and make a U-turn on the said carriageway unless other traffic regulation is established by the traffic signs No.5.15.1 and 5.15.2. Moreover, such an action shall not create obstructions for the movement of trams.

7. Before turning left or right in order to enter other roads or territories adjacent to such roads so as not to violate the requirements under Article 20(2) of this Law and paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, if drivers of vehicles intend to leave the road:

a) from the right side, they shall keep as close as possible to the right edge of the carriageway and perform as short a manoeuvre as is possible thereafter;

b) from the left side, they shall approach the axis of the carriageway (on dual carriageways) or the left edge of the carriageway (on single carriageways) as close as possible, but if they intend to enter other dual carriageway roads, they shall turn so as not to appear in the opposite traffic lane when leaving the intersections of carriageways.

8. If drivers are unable to turn due to the dimensions of vehicles or other reasons, then, in view of the requirements under paragraph 7 of this article, deviation from such rules may be permitted on the precondition that traffic safety is guaranteed and no obstructions for road users are created.

9. When turning left or making a U-turn after a junction, drivers of wheeled vehicles are obliged to give way to vehicles moving in the opposite traffic lane and trams moving in the proceeding traffic lane.

10. If the width of the carriageway is not enough to turn from the extreme left position of the vehicle after a junction, such manoeuvre may be performed from the right edge of the carriageway or from the right road shoulder. Moreover, drivers shall give way to vehicles moving in the proceeding and opposite traffic lanes.

11. If the width of the carriageway at a road junction is not enough to turn from the extreme left position of the vehicle, drivers are obliged to perform such a manoeuvre after the road junction, except where the width of the road adjacent to the road junction does not allow. Traffic safety shall be guaranteed in all cases and no obstructions for other road users shall be created. The procedure under this paragraph does not apply to road junctions where making a U-turn is not permitted by appropriate traffic signs or road markings.

12. Where the trajectories of the movement of vehicles intersect and priority is not specified, drivers shall give way to vehicles approaching them from the right side.

13. If there is a deceleration lane, drivers intending to turn shall move into such lane in a timely manner and slow down thereafter.

14. If there is an acceleration lane at the entrance of a road, drivers shall move into such lane, and while moving into the lanes next to the acceleration lane they should give way to vehicles moving in such lanes.

15. Making a U-turn shall not be allowed:

a) on pedestrian crossings;

b) in tunnels;

c) on and under bridges, underpasses, and flyovers;

d) on railway level crossings;

e) on roads, where the visibility even on a single direction is less than 100 metres;

f) in areas intended for stops;

g) in other areas determined by this Law.

16. Drivers intending to make a U-turn or to reverse shall make sure that they are able to perform such a manoeuvre so as not to pose a danger to or create obstructions for other road users. Where necessary, the assistance of third persons may be recommended. Reversing at junctions, motorways and places referred to in paragraph 15 of this article shall not be permitted.

17. In accordance with the requirements under this article, drivers may bypass, from the left or right side, the safety islands, trestles or other facilities installed on the carriageways they are moving on, except where:

a) traffic signs indicate which side is allowed to be used for bypassing safety islands, trestles or other facilities;

b) safety islands, trestles or other facilities are located on the axis of a dual carriageway. In the given case, drivers shall bypass safety islands, trestles or other facilities only from the right side.

 

Article 33 – Speed and distance

1. Drivers shall be prohibited from driving vehicles by exceeding the speed limit determined by this Law. The chosen speed shall give the opportunity to drivers to permanently control their vehicles to ensure traffic safety.

2. When driving vehicles, drivers shall take into account the road conditions (the relief of the location, the condition of the road and the vehicle, the load of the vehicle, atmospheric conditions, the intensity of traffic, inadequate or reduced visibility, etc.), in order to take all possible precautions, if required, and also when facing any threat or obstruction, to slow down and/or stop the vehicle when required to do so.

3. Drivers may not hinder the traffic by driving too slowly without any special grounds to do so.

4. Drivers are prohibited from braking hard, except for the cases when the given action is necessary to prevent traffic accidents.

5. Drivers who intend to slow down suddenly and quickly, unless such action is caused by a direct danger, shall make sure in advance that they are able to perform such manoeuvre without posing a danger to other road users and without hindering the traffic. In addition to this, drivers shall give a clear signal by hand in advance of their intention to slow down, except for the cases when they are not followed by vehicles or when they are far away from vehicles. However, such requirements shall not apply if the signal of intention to slow down is given by means of the 'Stop' signal attached to the vehicle.

6. Unless otherwise provided for by this Law, the speed limit for vehicles in built-up areas shall be 60 km/h, and in residential areas no more than 20 km/h. If the road conditions in built-up areas present the opportunity to drive at a high speed, the speed limit may be increased by installing traffic signs on separate sections of the road.

7. Except for the cases determined by this Law, outside built-up areas and in separate sections of built-up areas where driving at a speed of more than 60km/h is permitted by respective traffic signs, the traffic flow of the following categories and sub-categories of vehicles shall be allowed:

a) vehicles under category A and sub-categories A1 and B1, at a speed of no more than 80km/h;

b) vehicles under the category B:

b.a) at a speed of no more than 110km/h on motorways and no more than 90km/h on other roads, unless they are towing light trailers;

b.b) at a speed of no more than 80km/h on any type of road if they are towing light trailers;

c) vehicles under category BE, at a speed of no more than 70km/h;

d) vehicles under categories C and CE, and under sub-categories C1 and C1E:

d.a) at a speed of no more than 80km/h on motorways, and no more than 70km/h on other roads;

d.b) at a speed of no more than 60km/h while carrying passengers in the vehicle body in a duly organised manner;

e) vehicles under sub-categories D1 and D1E, at a speed of no more than 80km/h on any road;

f) vehicles under categories D and DE, at a speed of no more than 80km/h on motorways, and no more than 70km/h on other roads;

8. Unless otherwise prescribed by this Law, the traffic flow of the following vehicles shall be permitted in built-up areas and in areas outside built-up areas:

a) vehicles under categories T and S, at a speed of no more than 40km/h on any road;

b) mopeds and similar vehicles, at a speed of no more than 45km/h on any road where the movement of vehicles of such categories is permitted;

c) two wheeled electric scooters, at a speed of no more than 20km/h on any road where the movement of vehicles of such categories is permitted;

d) motor vehicles which are towing other motor vehicles, at a speed of no more than 50km/h;

e) oversize load (overweight load) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles, at the maximum speed specified in the agreement issued by the authorised bodies (entities) as provided for by the legislation of Georgia;

f) vehicles carrying dangerous goods, at the maximum speed specified under the carriage conditions.

9. Except for the cases determined under paragraphs 6 and 8 of this article, drivers may not:

a) exceed the maximum design speed specified for vehicles;

b) exceed the speed as indicated on the vehicle marking 'Speed Limit' attached to their vehicles;

c) exceed the maximum speed as specified in a traffic sign.

10. Drivers may not exceed the maximum speed limit determined by paragraphs 6 and 9 of this article, even if relevant traffic signs or signals permit driving at a higher speed on roads.

11. Drivers of vehicles following other vehicles shall keep an appropriate distance in order to avoid a crash due to the unexpected braking or stopping of the vehicle in front. In order to ensure traffic safety, a safe distance from the side shall be also kept.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

 

Article 34 – Overtaking and driving in lanes

1. Drivers shall overtake on the left. Drivers are permitted to overtake on the right if the driver of the vehicle who is being overtaken has switched on a left-turn indicator and has directed the vehicle to make a turn into another road, or to enter an area adjacent to the road, or to stop on the side of the road.

2. Cyclists and moped riders may bypass stopped or slowly moving vehicles on the right if there is sufficient space to perform such manoeuvre.

3. Before overtaking, drivers, in compliance with the requirements of Articles 20(2) and 32 of this Law, shall make sure that:

a) no driver of a vehicle who is following them has begun to overtake;

b) the driver of a vehicle moving ahead in the same lane has not given the overtaking signal. Drivers may not overtake vehicles which are performing overtaking manoeuvres or bypassing obstructions;­

c) they can overtake without posing a danger or creating obstructions for other road users. They shall also make sure that the overtaking lane is free over a sufficient distance and that the speed ratio of the two vehicles allows for overtaking within a sufficiently short time;

d) they are able to return to the position referred to in Article 31(10)-(12) of this Law without posing a danger to vehicles they intend to overtake except for the cases where entering the lanes of the opposite direction is not permitted;

e) they are able to return to their previous position in the lane without creating obstructions for vehicles they have overtaken after the completion of the overtaking manoeuvre, if such obligations are provided for by this Law.­

4. Overtaking may not be performed in conditions of reduced visibility, except in places where respective longitudinal markings are provided and where overtaking is performed without entering the lanes of the opposite direction.

5. While overtaking, drivers shall leave sufficient space on the appropriate side of the vehicles they intend to overtake in order to ensure traffic safety.

6. If, on the road that has at least two proceeding traffic lanes, a driver who, for the purposes of the fulfilment of the requirements under Article 31(10)-(12) of this Article, after completing an overtaking manoeuvre will have to start a new overtaking manoeuvre immediately or in a short time after returning to their previous lane, such driver may remain in the lane used for making the first overtaking manoeuvre, provided that he/she makes sure in advance that this will not hinder the drivers of vehicles moving behind him/her at a greater speed.

7. If, in the cases under paragraph 6 of this article, the intensity of traffic is so heavy that vehicles occupy not only the entire width of a carriageway, but also move at a speed which depends on the speed of the vehicles in front of them:

a) the fact that vehicles in one lane are moving at a greater speed than the vehicles in other lanes may not be construed as overtaking as referred to in this article, although the given fact shall not release drivers from fulfilling the requirements under paragraph 11 of this article;

b) drivers whose vehicles are not moving in the lane nearest to the right edge of the carriageway may leave the taken lane for the purposes of turning left or right or entering a parking place.

8. If a carriageway is divided into lanes by road marking lines, drivers shall proceed in the marked lanes while driving in rows as provided for by paragraphs 6 and 7 of this article. Crossing the road markings (broken white lines) shall be allowed only when bypassing obstructions, and when making the manoeuvres of overtaking, turning left or right, stopping or reversing.

9. In accordance with the requirements under paragraph 3 of this article, overtaking shall be prohibited:

a) at junctions other than circular junctions or directly in front of such junctions, except for:

a.a) the case when overtaking on the right is permitted under this Law;

a.b) the cases when overtaking is performed on the road, where drivers are given the priority to proceed at junctions;

a.c) the cases when overtaking is performed at regulated junctions without taking the lane of the opposite direction;

b) at a railway level-crossing and closer than 100 metres in front of one, except for the cases when the traffic at such places is regulated by traffic lights which are specially designed for controlling junctions;

c) of vehicles which are performing overtaking or bypass manoeuvres;­

d) at a location marked with a sign or marking which prohibits overtaking;

e) where overtaking requires driving in lanes of the opposite direction in conditions of reduced visibility;

f) under other circumstances determined by in this Law.

10. The restrictions under paragraph 9(a) and (b) of this article shall not apply to cases of overtaking two wheel electric bicycles, mopeds and motorcycles without sidecars.

 11. Vehicles may overtake other vehicles which are approaching a pedestrian crossing, or vehicles which have stopped in front of such a crossing, provided they do so at a low enough speed to ensure they can stop in good time in the event that pedestrians appear at the crossing. Overtaking at pedestrian crossings shall not be permitted if pedestrians are moving on such crossings.

 12. Drivers who are aware that the driver of a vehicle approaching from behind intends to overtake, shall keep to the right edge of the road to the maximum extent possible and shall not accelerate, except for the cases under Article 32(7)(b) of this Law. If the width, profile or the condition of the road carriageway, taking into account the intensity of the opposing traffic, does not allow for slow moving or oversize load vehicles to overtake easily and safely, the drivers of such vehicles shall slow down and give way to vehicles following them at the earliest opportunity possible.

13. In accordance with the requirements under Article 31(except for paragraph 5) of this Law, on a carriageway which has no less than two preceding traffic lanes marked with a longitudinal line, drivers may take the lane which is more convenient for them (except for the cases under this Law). They shall move to another lane only in accordance with the rules that regulate the manoeuvres of turning right or left, overtaking or parking.

14. In the cases under paragraph 13 of this article, driving vehicles in the preceding lane at a speed that is higher than the speed of vehicles driving in the lanes near the edge of the carriageway shall not be construed as overtaking within the meaning of this article, although the requirements under paragraph 11 of this article shall apply to such cases.

 15. The requirements under paragraph 13 of this article shall not apply to highways, or to roads for traffic which is similar to the traffic of highways and which are marked with the traffic sign No. 5.3, which do not serve adjacent areas, as well as to any road on which the maximum permitted speed is more than 80 km/h.

 16. The driver of a vehicle which is to be overtaken may not interfere with the overtaking by speeding up or conducting any other action.­

 17. If, during overtaking, a driver faces a danger or an obstruction which could not have been foreseen by the driver before starting to overtake, or if he/she fails to assess the situation adequately, the driver is obliged to stop overtaking. If a driver has stopped overtaking and intends to return to their previous lane, the driver of the vehicle approaching him/her from behind shall allow him/her to do so.

 18. Overtaking, bypassing or passing stopped vehicles for operative services equipped with special rotating blue flashing beacons, or stopped vehicles of special or road operation services equipped with rotating orange or amber flashing beacons, and slowly moving vehicles of technical maintenance, or vehicles performing road works for utility services, may be allowed from the left and right despite the requirements of traffic signs and horizontal road markings installed on the section of such roads, taking into account the positions of such vehicles on the carriageways, and the situation and the possible dangers.

 19. In order to make overtaking easier on roads with a single lane for preceding traffic in built-up areas, drivers of vehicles moving on the given section of the road at a speed that is less than the maximum permitted speed, and drivers whose overall length of vehicles or a caravan is more than 7m, except for the moment of starting or completing an overtaking manoeuvre, shall keep a safe distance between their vehicles and the vehicles moving in front of them so that other drivers of vehicles who intend to overtake their vehicle are able to safely take a position in the lane in front of a vehicle which has been overtaken by such vehicles. This rule shall not apply in cases of intensive traffic and where overtaking is prohibited.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

 

Article 35 – Passing into oncoming traffic

 1. While passing into oncoming traffic, drivers of vehicles shall keep enough free space on the side and keep to the right edge of the carriageway if required. In addition to this, if passing becomes complicated due to the existence of obstacles or other road users, they shall slow down and stop if required in order to let the oncoming vehicle(s) pass.

 2. On mountain roads and roads with analogue features with sharp slanting, and on roads marked with the traffic signs No.1.14 and 1.15, where passing is impossible or complicated, the drivers of vehicles going downhill shall stop and give way to drivers of vehicles going uphill, except in cases where there are passing bays located along the carriageway to enable drivers moving uphill to stop in the passing bay in front of them by taking into account the speed and the position of the vehicle, which would exclude the need for one of the vehicles to reverse. If, for the purposes of bypassing, one of the vehicles out of two has to reverse, drivers of caravans shall be given priority over drivers of vehicles of all other categories, and drivers of heavy duty vehicles shall be given priority over drivers of light duty vehicles, and bus drivers shall be given priority over drivers of lorries and cars. In the case of vehicles of the same category or sub-category, vehicles going downhill shall reverse, except where it is obvious that the drivers of vehicles going uphill are able to perform such a manoeuvre more easily, for example if they are positioned near a passing bay.

 

 Article 36 – Junctions and the obligation to give way

1. Drivers shall take extraordinary precautions while approaching junctions, taking into account local conditions. In addition to this, drivers shall drive at a speed which enables them to stop and give way to vehicles which are given priority.

 2. A junction where traffic priority is regulated by traffic lights or by signals given by a traffic warden shall be a regulated junction.­ A junction where a yellow flashing light is switched on, or where there is no traffic light or one that is out of order, or a junction where there is no traffic warden, shall be an unregulated junction, and drivers shall obey the rules for passing unregulated junctions and the priority signs installed at such junctions.

 3. At regulated junctions:

 a) drivers of wheeled vehicles shall give way to vehicles moving straight or right in the opposite direction while turning left or making a U-turn after the green traffic light is switched on. This rule shall apply to the drivers of trams intersecting with each other;

 b) drivers shall give way to vehicles moving from another direction, when they are proceeding in the direction of the arrow which is switched on, together with the yellow or red light signals in the additional section of the traffic light;­

 c) if the signals given by traffic lights or traffic wardens allow the movement of railway and wheeled vehicles simultaneously, railway vehicles shall have priority despite their direction, but drivers of railway vehicles shall give way to vehicles moving from another direction when they are proceeding in the direction of the arrow which is switched on together with the yellow or red light signals in the additional section of the traffic light;

 d) if the signals given by traffic wardens allow the movement of wheeled vehicles with intersecting trajectories, drivers of such vehicles shall obey the rules of passing unregulated junctions and the priority signs installed at such junctions;

 e) drivers who have entered a junction on the permitting signal of the traffic light may continue moving in the chosen direction regardless of the prohibition signals located beyond the junction at the intersection, ­but only provided that such action will not create obstructions for other road users moving in the direction in which the traffic is allowed. If, during the passing of the junction, there are 'Stop' lines (and/or the traffic sign No.7.16) in front of the traffic lights in the direction of the road they have taken, drivers shall follow the signals of each traffic light;­

 f) when the permitting signal of the traffic light turns on, drivers shall give way to any other drivers who are completing crossing the junction and to pedestrians who have not completed crossing the carriageway in the chosen direction;

g) if the right-turn lane at the junction is separated from the rest of the carriageway by a safety island and there is no traffic light on the right hand side in front of the junction, the right turn shall be performed regardless of the signals of the traffic light at the junction, and by giving way to drivers approaching from another direction.

4. At unregulated junctions:

a) at the intersection of roads of different priorities, drivers moving on secondary priority roads shall give way to vehicles approaching from main roads regardless of the direction such drivers intend to take;

b) if the direction of the main road changes at the intersection, the drivers driving on such road shall follow the rules of passing roads with the same priorities. Drivers driving on the secondary priority roads shall also follow such rules;

c) drivers of wheeled vehicles shall give way to vehicles approaching from the right at the intersection of same priority roads. This rule shall apply to drivers of railway vehicles. Railway vehicles shall have priority over wheeled vehicles at such road intersections regardless of the direction they choose to take;

d) drivers of wheeled vehicles intending to turn left or make a U-turn shall give way to vehicles moving straight or to the right hand side on same priority roads from an opposite direction.­­ This rule shall apply to drivers of railway vehicles.

5. Drivers shall not enter a road intersection which is so blocked that it is likely they must stop and create an obstruction for the traffic moving in a traverse direction. This rule shall also apply to cases where the traffic light signals give permission to proceed.

6. Unless otherwise provided for by the traffic sign, drivers who are moving on a dirt road, and who intend to enter a road which is not a dirt road, shall give way to vehicles moving on the road they have entered.

7. When entering a road from adjacent areas drivers shall give way to vehicles moving on the road they have entered.

8. If drivers are unable to specify the type of the road cover (due to darkness, snow, mud, or other reasons) and if there are no priority signs, such drivers shall be construed to be on a secondary priority road.

 9. Drivers who are obliged to give way to other road users in accordance with the requirements of this Law shall express their intention to give way to other road users by slowing down or stopping their vehicles.

 

 Article 37 – Stopping and parking 

1. Vehicles shall stop or park outside built-up areas as far outside the carriageway as possible. Except for exclusions under the legislation of Georgia, vehicles may not stop or park on cycle paths, cycle lanes, mini-bus lanes, pedestrian paths, pavements (if there is no traffic sign No.7.4 and an appropriate road marking) or verges.

2. Vehicles shall stop or park as close to the edge of the carriageway as is possible. Drivers may stop or park vehicles on the right side of the carriageway. Vehicles may stop or park on the left side of the carriageway in the following situations:

a) where it is impossible to stop on the right side of the carriageway due to the presence of a railway line;

b) in built-up areas on roads with a single lane for both directions and without any tramway rails in the middle;

c) on single carriageway roads (it shall be permitted to stop lorries on the left side of single carriageways only in the process of loading or unloading).

3. Vehicles may stop and park only in places marked with appropriate traffic signs or road markings in the middle of carriageways.

4. Vehicles may be parked in a single line, parallel to the edge of the carriageway, except for places which enable drivers to park their vehicles in a different manner. Two wheeled vehicles without sidecars may be double-parked. Vehicles, motorcycles, mopeds and bicycles may be parked on the edges of pavements adjacent to carriageways provided they do not obstruct pedestrians.­­

5. The rules on stopping and parking vehicles on pavements shall be determined by the representative body of the local self-government.

6. It shall be prohibited to stop vehicles:

a) on carriageways:

a.a) on pedestrian and cyclist crossings and closer than five metres in front of such crossings;

a.b) on tram and railway lines located on roads or near them, if this might hinder the movement of trams and trains;

a.c) at the intersections of carriageways, as well as closer than five metres from the edges of such intersections, except for the cases where vehicles stop on three way intersections (junctions) opposite side exits, on which there are solid white lines or central reservations;

b) at any place, where stopping a vehicle may pose a danger, including:

b.a) on flyovers, bridges and underpasses, except for cases where there are more than two lanes of proceeding traffic in such places;

b.b) under flyovers, bridges and underpasses, as well as in tunnels, except for places specially allocated for stopping;

b.c) on carriageways near dangerous turns and on convex curves of a longitudinal profile of the roads where road visibility, even in one direction only, is less than 100m;

b.d) at locations where the distance between a solid white line (except for lines marking the edge of the carriageway) and a stopped vehicle is less than 3m;­

b.e) at locations where stopping obscures the visibility of the coloured signals of traffic lights or traffic signs for other road users;

b.f) in an additional lane designed for slowly moving vehicles and marked with relevant traffic signs; 

b.g) at locations closer than 15m from allocated mini-bus or taxi stops, and where such stops are not provided, from signposts indicating mini-bus or taxi stops, if such action creates obstructions for such vehicles;

c) within the zones of operation of 'No Stop' prohibition signs and/or road markings;

d) at other locations determined by this Law.

7. It shall be prohibited to park vehicles:

a) at locations where the parking of vehicles is prohibited;

b) on carriageways closer than 50 metres from railway level-crossings;

c) in parking lots marked with the traffic sign No. 8.17 and designated for persons with disabilities (except for persons referred to in the Article 19(2)(a) of this Law);

d) at the exit of vehicles from a yard;

e) at any location where parked vehicles may hinder the entry and exit of other vehicles into and from the parking area.

f) on carriageways located outside built-up areas which are marked with the traffic signs No. 2.1, 5.1. 5.3, as well as on carriageways in built-up areas where it is permitted to drive at a speed of more than 80km/h, except for specially marked areas;

g) within the zones of operation of 'No Stop' prohibition signs and/or road markings;

h) by violating the methods for parking vehicles established by appropriate traffic signs;

i) by violating the methods for parking vehicles established by appropriate road markings;

j) in other cases provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

8. Drivers shall not leave their vehicles unless they have taken all necessary precautions to prevent traffic accidents. In addition to this, all necessary precautions shall be taken with respect to motor vehicles in order to prevent their unauthorised use.

9. Motor vehicles, other than mopeds or two wheeled motorcycles without sidecars and trailers coupled or not coupled with truck tractors, which have stopped on a carriageway outside a built-up area, shall be marked by at least one piece of equipment, placed in the most convenient place and within a certain distance, in order to warn approaching drivers, if:

a) the vehicle has stopped on the section of the carriageway at night and the obstruction which is created by such vehicle cannot be identified by approaching drivers;

b) drivers are forced to stop their vehicles at the location where stopping is prohibited.

10. While stopping vehicles at a location where stopping vehicles is prohibited, drivers shall take all necessary precautions to relocate such vehicles from such locations.

11. Parking vehicles for the purpose of a long rest outside the built-up areas (for staying overnight or for other purposes) shall be permitted on specially designated overnight parking areas or beyond the edges of roads.

 

Article 38 – Motorways and other similar roads

1. On motorways and at the entrances and exits of motorways:

a) the movement of pedestrians, animals, bicycles, mopeds, two wheeled electric scooters, and vehicles other than cars and their trailers, or cars (with or without trailers) whose design speed does not exceed 40 km/h, shall be prohibited (such restriction shall not apply to motor vehicles moving on motorways on the basis of an agreement with an authorised body (entity) in accordance with the Legislation of Georgia and on the basis of the terms of such agreement);

b) in-car driving training sessions shall be prohibited;

c) drivers may not:

c.a) stop or park vehicles (and/or their trailers), except in places allocated for parking with specific markings. Drivers who are forced to stop their vehicles due to circumstances that are beyond their control shall take all necessary precautions to relocate their vehicles (and/or trailers) from the carriageway and if they are unable to immediately take such action, they shall switch on hazard warning signals (if any) and mark their vehicles (and/or their trailers) with appropriate markings at a sufficient distance to warn approaching drivers in good time;

c.b) make a U-turn or reverse, or enter the traverse intersection of the central reservation and both carriageways of the road;

c.c) drive goods carrying vehicles (with or without trailers) with a maximum authorised mass of more than 3.5 tons, or vehicles coupled with trailers having a total length of more than 7m beyond the second lane;

d) holding demonstrations, auto races, promotional races, and auto competitions, and the technical examinations of vehicles and prototypes with bodies similar to vehicles, shall be permitted only by a decision of the executive authorities of Georgia or local self-government bodies.

2. Drivers shall give way to vehicles driving on the motorway while entering the motorway. They shall use an acceleration lane where such lane exists.

3. Drivers shall move, in good time, into the lane adjacent to the motorway while leaving the motorway and enter the deceleration lane as soon as possible, if such lane exists.

4. Vehicles towed by home-made equipment may not enter motorways. Faulty vehicles towed by home-made equipment which have broken down on motorways, shall leave such motorways at the nearest exit. Ropes, wires and other similar materials shall be construed as home-made equipment as referred to in this paragraph.

 5. Where paragraphs 1-3 of this article apply, roads designed for traffic and marked with the traffic sign No 5.3, and which do not serve adjacent territories, shall be equal to motorways.

 

Article 39 – Railway level crossings

1. All road users shall take extraordinary precautions while approaching and crossing railway level crossings, including the following:

a) drivers shall move at a moderate speed; in addition to this, drivers shall use only railway road crossings while crossing railway rails and shall give way to trains (locomotives, trolleys);

b) when the gates or half-gates are closed or are closing or opening, no road user shall enter a railway level-crossing, despite the instructions given by light and voice signals;

c) when the stop signal is given by a traffic warden or a traffic light, no road user shall enter a railway level-crossing despite the position of the gates or half gates, or whether such gates or half-gates are provided or not;

d) if railway level-crossings are not equipped with gates, half-gates or light signals, no road user shall cross them without making sure that no railway vehicle is approaching the level-crossing within the visibility area;

e) drivers shall not enter railway level-crossings until they make sure that they will not have to stop on them;

f) road users shall cross railway level-crossings without stopping on them.

2. On railway level-crossings it shall be prohibited to:

a) bypass vehicles standing in front of railway level-crossings by entering the lane of the opposite direction;

b) wilfully open the gates or half-gates;

c) carry agricultural, road building and other machines and devices, in non-transporting conditions, which may damage railway level-crossings or create obstructions to traffic flow;

d) drive slow moving vehicles, whose speed is no more than eight km/h, and tractor pulling sledges, without the permission of the head of the railway line section.

e) conduct other actions prohibited by the legislation of Georgia.

 3. If the movement on railway crossings is prohibited, drivers shall stop at a 'Stop' line, at the traffic sign No.2.4 or at a traffic light, but if none of them exists, drivers shall stop at a distance of no less than five metres from such gates or half-gates.­­ If there are neither gates nor half-gates, drivers shall stop at a distance of no less than 10 metres from the nearest rail.

4. When giving prohibition signals on railway level crossings, a traffic warden shall stand with their chest or back towards drivers, holding a traffic wand, a red flash-light, or a flag above his/her head, or with their hands stretched horizontally.­

5. In the case of an involuntary stop of a vehicle on a railway level-crossing, the driver shall try to relocate it from the railway line, and if he/she is unable to do so he/she shall, in good time, warn the operators of railway vehicles about the danger and shall promptly take all necessary precautions within their power, and they shall:

a) immediately remove passengers from vehicles;

b) if the opportunity allows, send two persons along the railway line for a distance of 1000m from the railway level-crossing in both directions (if he/she sends only one person, such person shall be sent in the direction where visibility is more reduced) and explain the procedure for giving stop signals to operators of approaching trains;

c) stay near the vehicle and give a 'Standard Emergency Warning' signal;

d) run towards the train as it appears and give a 'Stop' signal.

6. The circular movement of a hand (holding a piece of cloth of vivid colour or a clearly visible object during the daytime and a lamp or a flash-light during the night time) shall mean a 'Stop' signal. One long and three short beeps shall mean the 'Standard Emergency Warning' signal.

 

Article 40 – Special rules related to railway vehicles

1. If there is a railway line on the carriageway of a road, each road user shall leave the railway line as fast as possible to give way to approaching railway vehicles.

2. Overtaking moving or stopped railway vehicles on a railway line which is located on the carriageway shall be permitted from the right. If the passing of oncoming vehicles and overtaking of such vehicles from the right side is impossible due to a narrow exit, such manoeuvre may be performed from the left side, on the precondition that this does not restrict and/or endanger oncoming road users. Overtaking shall be permitted on the left on single carriageways, if such action is justified by the requirements of traffic regulation.

 

Article 41 – Special rules related to mini-buses

1. In accordance with the requirements under Article 33(4) of this Law, drivers of vehicles other than drivers of mini-buses shall slow down and if necessary stop to make the movement of mini-buses easier and to let them perform the manoeuvre necessary for leaving a stopping point. Drivers of mini-buses shall, after switching on indicator lights signalling their intention to resume movement, take all necessary precautions in order to prevent traffic accidents and proceed only after making sure that other vehicles have given way to them.

2. Trams shall have priority over wheeled vehicles at the intersection points of tramway lines and carriageways, except for the cases when trams are leaving depots.

3. The driving or stopping of vehicles on roads with lanes marked with the traffic signs No. 5.11, 5.13.1, 5.13.2 and 5.14 which are designated for the movement of mini-buses, shall not be permitted. If such lane is separated from the rest of the carriageway by a broken white line, other vehicles shall regroup in such lane while making a turn. It shall be also permitted to enter the sections on such lane while entering a road and to enter the right edge of the carriageway while picking up and removing passengers, if such action does not create obstructions for the movement of mini-buses.

 

Article 42 – Special rules related to tunnels marked with traffic signs

The following special rules shall apply to tunnels marked with traffic signs:

a) drivers may not reverse or make a U-turn;

b) drivers shall switch on low and high beams, even if the tunnels are lit;

c) drivers may stop or park vehicles in tunnels only in the case of an emergency stop or danger. In addition to this, they shall use a specially marked area for such actions if it is possible;

d) drivers shall stop the engine in the case of stopping a car for a long period;

e) when making an involuntary stop drivers shall obey the requirements determined by this Law which apply to involuntary stops in restricted places.

 

Article 43 – Special rules related to cyclists and riders of two wheeled electric scooters, mopeds, motorcycles, snowmobiles and motor sledges

1. Persons who have attained the age of 14 may ride bicycles or two wheeled electric scooters on roads, and persons who have attained the age of 16 may ride mopeds, snowmobiles or motor sledges only if they wear special helmets while riding.

2. Cyclists and riders of mopeds, snowmobiles and motor sledges may not ride on carriageways and beyond cycle lanes, cycle paths and snowmobile and/or motor sledge lanes, if cycle lanes, cycle paths and snowmobile and/or motor sledge lanes are provided. Bicycles, mopeds and snowmobiles and/or motor sledges may be ridden only in the right lanes at the edge of the road in a single line, and on road shoulders provided such action does not create obstructions for pedestrian traffic. Riders of snowmobiles and motor sledges may not ride on skiing and/or skating slopes and/or on roads (trails), except for the cases when the movement of authorised persons is permitted for the purposes of rescue, rehabilitation, police and other operations, whose snowmobiles and/or motor sledges shall be equipped with a flashing light positioned at no less than 1.5 m height (in the case of snowmobiles it shall be positioned on the body, and in the case of motor sledges and other vehicles, on a special pole) on the vehicle.

3. If there are no cycle lanes, cycle paths or shoulders and in addition to this the traffic is congested on the carriageway, cycling on the pavement shall be permitted only if obstructions are not created for pedestrian traffic. Mopeds may not be ridden on pavements.

4. Cyclists and moped riders shall be permitted to travel in columns. When columns of cyclists and moped riders travel on carriageways, they shall be divided into groups of no less than 10 units per group. The distance between such groups shall equal to 80-100 metres in order to make overtaking easier.

5. Cyclists and moped riders may not turn left or make a U-turn on the section of the road where a tramway line is located, as well as on a road which has more than one lane of proceeding traffic.

6. At an unregulated intersection of a cycle path with a road beyond the junction cyclists and moped riders shall give way to drivers of vehicles travelling on such road.

7. Cyclists and riders of snowmobiles, motor sledges, mopeds and two wheeled electric scooters may not ride unless they hold the steering wheel with one hand. Towing bicycles, snowmobiles, motor sledges, mopeds and two wheel electric scooters, or towing other vehicles (except for the cases under paragraph 8 of this article) by such vehicles shall be prohibited; it shall be also prohibited to carry goods whose width and length exceed the overall length of vehicles by more than 0.5m, and to carry and/or push objects if such action may interfere with the drivers' ability to drive or may endanger other road users. This rule shall apply to riders of motorcycles, however they shall hold the steering wheel by both hands, except for the cases where it is necessary to give a signal by hand in order to perform a manoeuvre.

8. Towing trailers by bicycles, snowmobiles, motor sledges, mopeds, two wheeled electric scooters and motorcycles without sidecars, shall be permitted if such trailers are allowed to be operated together with such vehicles.

9. Cyclists and moped riders may not carry passengers (except for children under the age of 7, if such vehicles are equipped with reliable pedals and extra passenger seats). Riders of motorcycles, snowmobiles and motor sledges may carry passengers only in a sidecar (if any) and/or in an extra seat arranged behind the driver’s seat and only with proper and special helmets. It shall be prohibited to carry passengers on two wheeled electronic scooters.

10. Riders of motorcycles, mopeds, snowmobiles and motor sledges shall use proper and special helmets while travelling.

11. Bicycles shall have technically smooth braking systems, handlebars and horns. They shall be equipped with a reflector and a white headlight or a beam (for riding during the hours of darkness or reduced visibility) in the front end, and a reflector and a red headlight or a beam at the rear end, and an orange or a red reflector on both sides.

12. Two wheeled electric scooters, snowmobiles and motor sledges may be ridden on shoulders, pavements, pedestrian paths and in pedestrianised zones and built-up areas, on cycle paths and cycle lanes. Riders of two wheeled electric scooters and motor sledges shall give way to pedestrians and may not create obstructions or pose a danger at locations where there is pedestrian traffic.

13. Two wheeled electric scooters, snowmobiles and snow sledges may be ridden only if a safe distance is kept and at the speed pedestrians normally use (5km/h) at locations where there is pedestrian traffic. Where there is no pedestrian traffic the maximum speed of two wheeled scooters, snowmobiles and motor sledges may not exceed 20km/h.

14. Where there are no shoulders, pavements, pedestrian paths, cycle paths, cycle lanes, snowmobile and/or motor sledge lanes, two wheeled electric scooters and motor sledges may be ridden at the edge of carriageways where the intensity of traffic allows. In the cases provided for by this paragraph, riders of two wheeled electric scooters, snowmobiles and motor sledges shall follow the rules for moving on carriageways.

15. At unregulated pedestrian crossings, as well as while crossing the sections of carriageways which are not marked as a crossing by appropriate traffic signs or horizontal road markings, cyclists and riders of mopeds, two wheel electric scooters, snowmobiles and motor sledges shall:

a) give way to drivers of other vehicles (except for the cases under sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph) moving on such sections;

b) have priority over the drivers who are performing a turning manoeuvre to enter the carriageway.

Law of Georgia No 4789 of 19 February 2016 – website, 7.3.2016

 

Article 44 – Special rules related to locations acknowledged as pedestrianised areas and to residential areas

1. In residential areas marked with appropriate signs:

a) pedestrians may walk on the entire width of the road and children may play;

b) drivers shall move at a speed of no more than 20km/h;

c) drivers shall not pose a danger to pedestrians or hinder their movement, and drivers shall stop vehicles if required;

d) pedestrians may not create obstructions for traffic unreasonably;

e) road users who are leaving residential areas shall give way to other road users at the crossing;

f) motor vehicles may not be parked in areas which are beyond specifically designated places marked with traffic signs and/or road markings.­

2. Vehicles shall move within the locations which are acknowledged as pedestrianised areas in accordance with the requirements determined by paragraph 1 of this article.

3. Within the locations acknowledged as pedestrianised areas and in residential areas through traffic, in-car driving training sessions and standing with engines on shall be prohibited; in addition to this, pedestrians shall have priority over other road users.

4. The requirements under this article shall apply to areas in yards.

 

Article 45 – Towing motor vehicles 

1. Motor vehicles (without trailers) may tow other motor vehicles as provided for by this Law.

2. Motor vehicles may be towed using rigid and flexible hitches or by means of partial loading.

3. When towing motor vehicles using rigid or flexible hitches the towed vehicles shall be controlled by drivers, except for the cases where the design of the rigid hitches allows for a towed vehicle to follow the trajectory of a towing vehicle while moving.

4. It shall be prohibited to carry passengers by towed buses, trolleybuses and in the bodies of towed lorries when using rigid or flexible hitches while towing, and while towing by means of partial loading it shall be prohibited to carry persons in the body of the towed and towing motor vehicles.

5. The distance between the towing and towed vehicles when towing on flexible hitches shall be 4-6m, and the distance when towing on rigid hitches shall be no more than 4 m.

6. It shall be prohibited to tow:

a) motor vehicles using rigid or flexible hitches whose steering wheel mechanism is faulty;

b) two or more motor vehicles, as well as motor vehicles which have two or more trailers;

c) vehicles whose braking system is out of order if their actual mass is more than half the actual mass of towing vehicles, and where their actual mass is less than the actual mass of the towing vehicles, towing shall be permitted only by rigid hitches or by means of partial loading;

d) by motorcycles without sidecars, and it shall also be prohibited to tow such vehicles;

e) by flexible hitches when the road is frozen;

f) by vehicles carrying dangerous goods, and it shall also be prohibited to tow such vehicles;

g) in other cases determined by this Law.

7. Towing motor vehicles shall have low beams turned on at any time of the day or night, and towed motor vehicles shall have hazard lights turned on, and if there are no lights or such lights are out of order, a breakdown triangle shall be attached at the rear end of such vehicles.

8. While towing motor vehicles the towing (bridging) device shall be marked with flags or other warning devices so that they are clearly visible for other road users at any time of the day or night.

9. While towing motor vehicles flexible towing rings shall be marked with flags, warning devices or boards of 200X200mm with diagonal 50mm wide interchanging red and white stripes with a reflective surface. A minimum of two warming devices (flags) shall be attached to the flexible towing ring.

10. The design of rigid hitches used for towing shall comply with the requirements of state standards.

 

Article 46 – Carriage of passengers

1. Passengers may not be carried in such quantity and manner which as may create obstructions while driving or limit the visibility area for drivers of vehicles.

2. Passengers may be carried in the body of lorries with a platform board, if they meet the requirements determined by the legislation of Georgia.

3. Passengers may be carried in the body of lorries by persons who meet: 

a) the requirements under paragraph 7 of Article 56 of this Law, if the number of passengers does not exceed eight excluding a driver;

b) the requirements under paragraph 8 of Article 56 of this Law, if the number of passengers exceeds eight excluding a driver.

4. Where passengers are carried in the bodies of lorries owned by the Ministry of Defence of Georgia by a military servant, conditions other than those under paragraph 3 of this article may be established by an order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

5. The number of passengers to be carried in the bodies of lorries may not exceed the number of seats available for passengers.­­ Drivers of lorries shall give instructions on the rules for boarding the bodies of lorries and for their disposition therein before they start moving.­ Drivers shall start moving only after they make sure that all necessary precautions for carrying passengers safely are complied with.

6. Only persons accompanying or receiving goods may travel in the bodies of lorries with no platform of boards designed for the carriage of passengers, if such lorries are equipped with seats located below the board level.

7. During the carriage of groups of children by buses or lorries with ramp platforms, an adult guide shall accompany them and where groups of children are carried in the body of lorries with seats arranged on platform boards, they shall be accompanied by at least two guides. A vehicle marking ‘Children on Board’ shall be attached to the front and rear ends of such vehicles.

8. Drivers shall let passengers board and leave only after the vehicle has fully stopped, and they shall start moving only after the doors are closed and shall keep the doors closed till the vehicle has fully stopped.

9. Lorries with platform boards for the carriage of passengers shall be equipped with seats located at a height of 0.3-0.5m from the floor and at no less than 0,3 m from the upper edge of the board, and for the carriage of children the height of boards from the floor shall be no less than 0.8 m. The seats located along the rear or side boards shall have solid backs.

10. It is prohibited to carry passengers:

a) outside a cabin or compartment of cars, tractors, and other self-propelled vehicles (except for the cases where passengers are carried by lorries with a ramp platform or a platform board), trailers, mobile homes, the body of cargo motorcycles and outside the seats designed for motorcycles;­

b) if the number of passengers exceeds the number allowed for such vehicles in accordance with their technical features (without considering children under the age of 12);

c) if the actual mass of vehicles exceeds the maximum authorised mass of such vehicles;

d) in other cases provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

 

Article 47 – Goods carried by vehicles

1. Where a maximum authorised mass is established for vehicles, the actual mass of laden vehicles may not exceed the maximum authorised mass of such vehicles.

2. The maximum authorised mass of vehicles shall be determined by the registration document. Where the maximum authorised mass of a vehicle is not determined in the registration document, the total mass determined by the manufacturer for such vehicle shall be construed as the maximum authorised mass of the vehicle.

3. The following vehicles shall not be permitted to drive on roads:

a) if the maximum load on each leading or non-leading axle exceeds 10 tons (except for single leading axle vehicle, whose maximum load on the leading axle shall not exceed 11.5 tons) and/or the actual mass exceeds 44 tons and/or the actual mass exceeds the maximum authorised mass;

b) whose parameters comply with at least one of the specifications determined by paragraph 8 of this article.

4. If it is possible to reduce the size and/or mass determined by paragraph 3 of this article below the established limit without damaging the vehicle or goods by means of correcting and/or redistributing goods, drivers shall complete such action before they proceed, but if it is impossible to do so, they shall follow the procedures determined for the operation of oversize load (overweight load) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles determined by the legislation of Georgia.

5. Except for the restriction to exceed the maximum authorised mass, paragraph 3 of this article shall not apply to:

a) oversize load (overweight load) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles which move on roads after an agreement with an authorised body (entity) as provided for by the legislation of Georgia and in accordance with the terms and conditions of such agreement;

b) vehicles which have entered the territory of Georgia through the customs checkpoint located at a sea port, and which proceed to the customs control area under the Tax Code of Georgia located within the nearest 10 km radius from the territory of the sea port using the route determined by the tax authority;

c) vehicles which have entered the territory of Georgia through the customs checkpoint and proceed to a railway station located within the nearest 25 km radius from the tax authority, using the route towards the customs control area determined by the tax authority as provided for by the Tax Code of Georgia.

6. Oversize load (overweight load) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles are allowed to operate on roads only after an agreement with an authorised body (entity) as provided for by the legislation of Georgia and in accordance with the terms and conditions of such agreement.

7. A vehicle shall be classified as an abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicle if the maximum load on each leading or non-leading axle exceeds 10 tons (except for single leading axle vehicles whose maximum load on the leading axle may not exceed 11.5 tons) and/or the actual mass exceeds 44 tons and/or the actual mass exceeds the maximum authorised mass.

8. Vehicles shall fall into the category of oversize load (overweight load) vehicles if their parameters exceed at least one of the following specifications:

a) the height (from the surface of the carriageway), in the case of carrying an articulated lorry or a trailer, 4.30m, in other cases, 4 m;

b) the width, in the case of a refrigerator, 2.60 m, and in other cases, 2.55m;

c) the length, in the case of an articulated lorry, 20 m, and in other cases, 12 m, or if goods overhang from the rear end of the vehicle by more than 2 metres.

9. Vehicles may not fall into the category of abnormal load (heavy haulage or oversize load (overweight load) vehicles if the size and/or mass determined by paragraphs 7 and 8 of this article may be reduced below the established limit by way of correcting or redistributing goods without damaging the given vehicle or goods.

10. Vehicles carrying dangerous goods may travel only in the manner established by the legislation of Georgia.

11. In the process of carrying goods of any type they shall be placed on, and if required fixed to, vehicles so as not to:

a) endanger other road users, or damage state, public or private property, or drag or fall onto the roads;

b) limit the visibility and the visibility area, or compromise the stability of the vehicles, or complicate the driving process;

c) cover vehicle lights, a 'Stop' signal, turn light indicators, reflector devices, a registration number or a distinguishing sign of the country of registration, as well as other signals to be given using a hand as determined by this Law;

d) violate other requirements prescribed by the legislation of Georgia.

12. Any assist device which is used to fix goods and ensure safety (ropes, chains, canvas), shall be stretched and fixed firmly, and shall meet the requirements established for goods under paragraph 11 of this article.

13. The load overhanging from the sides of vehicles of more than 1 m in front or at the rear end and from the outer edges of the sidelights of more than 0.4 m, shall be marked with the vehicle marking 'Oversize (Overweight) Load', in addition, such vehicles shall be equipped with a white front spotlight or a reflective front signal, or a red rear spotlight or a reflective rear signal in the hours of darkness during the day and night and in the conditions of inadequate visibility.

14. Drivers are obliged to place, distribute and fix goods in vehicles so as the requirements determined by the legislation of Georgia are not violated from the moment of starting to the moment of finishing the carriage of goods.

15. Where the requirements for the carriage of goods as provided for by the legislation of Georgia are not complied with, a driver shall rectify such non-compliances or stop the vehicle.

16. Unless otherwise provided for by the international agreements and treaties of Georgia, the requirements determined by this article shall apply to motor vehicles engaged in international traffic in the territory of Georgia.

 

Chapter IV – Voice, Light and Special Signals

 

Article 48 – Voice and light signals

1. Voice signals may only be used:

a) to promptly warn road users in order to prevent traffic accidents;

b) outside built-up areas, where it is necessary to warn drivers of other vehicles of the intention to overtake.

2. Voice signals may not last longer than necessary.

3. In order to warn drivers of other vehicles of the intention to overtake in built-up areas, drivers may give light signals during the period of daylight by turning on and off the lights periodically in short intervals, and during the hours of darkness, by changing low beams into high beams many times, and outside built-up areas, instead of a voice signal or in combination therewith.

4. Voice and light signals do not give priority to drivers over other road users.

 

Article 49 – Conditions for using outdoor light devices

1. During the hours of darkness or reduced visibility, low or high beam(s) and rear sidelights shall be turned on in moving motor vehicles and on mopeds, and front sidelights (if their presence is provided for by the legislation of Georgia) and no less than two rear sidelights shall be turned on a trailer.

2. High beams shall be turned off and low beams shall be turned on in the following cases:

a) in built-up areas, if the road is adequately lit, and outside built-up areas, if a carriageway is adequately lit, and where such light is enough for drivers of vehicles to ensure clear visibility for a considerable distance as well as for other road users to distinguish such vehicles from a considerable distance;

b) while bypassing oncoming vehicles, at no less than 150 m from the vehicle, so as not to strike the eyes of oncoming drivers and to give them an opportunity to drive smoothly and safely, and at longer distances, if an oncoming driver indicates such necessity by periodically turning a beam light(s) on and off;

c) in any other circumstances when the reduced visibility of other road users or the users of navy and railway routes adjacent to such roads shall be prevented.

3. A driver shall slow down without changing lane, stop and turn on hazard warning lights, if their eyes are struck by the lights of oncoming motor vehicles. They shall resume driving only after their visibility has been completely restored.

4. If motor vehicles are equipped with front fog lights, there shall be two of them and they shall have white or yellow selective light, and motorcycles shall have only one fog light. The front fog lights shall be installed in the manner that no dot of their illuminated surface is located above the highest dot of the illuminated surface of low beams. If rear fog lights are installed on motor vehicles or trailers, they shall be red.

5. Under conditions of inadequate visibility or while driving on narrow and winding roads fog lights shall be switched on together with low or light beams. 

6. Such lights shall be switched on in motor vehicles equipped with front sidelights and on mopeds together with high and low beams or front fog lights.

7. Any motorcycle driving on the road during the daylight shall turn on at least a front low beam and a red rear light.

8. Low beams and rear lights shall be switched on in order to distinguish a vehicle which is driving on the road during the daylight in the following cases:

a) while driving in an organised column;

b) while carrying a group of children on a bus or in an appropriately arranged body of a lorry;

c) while driving oversize load (overweight load) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles and vehicles carrying dangerous goods;

d) while towing motor vehicles on towing vehicles;

e) on mini buses, while driving in mini bus lanes in the direction opposite to the main traffic flow.

9. From dusk till dawn and in any other circumstances of inadequate visibility, motor vehicles and their trailers shall be marked with front and rear sidelights when such vehicles have stopped or parked on roads. In the cases of dense fog, frequent snow, heavy rain or in other similar circumstances, low beams or front fog lights shall be turned on. In such cases the rear fog lights may be additionally switched on together with the rear sidelights.

10. In built-up areas parking lamps may be turned on instead of front and rear sidelights if:

a) the length of a vehicle is no more than 6 m, and the width of a vehicle no more than 2 m;

b) the vehicle has no trailer attached.

11. Despite the requirements under paragraphs 9 and 10 of this article, a motor vehicle may stop or park in a parking space with the lights turned off in the following cases:

a) on a road which is lit adequately enough to view (distinguish) vehicles clearly from a considerable distance; 

b) beyond a carriageway and a shoulder with a solid cover.

12. The reverse light signals may be turned on only if a vehicle is reversing or intends to reverse.

13. Vehicles may not be equipped with red lamps in front and white lamps at the rear end. The design of vehicles may not be changed and extra lights may not be provided for such vehicles if they contravene the established requirements.

14. Lights with the same function and direction on vehicles shall have the same colour. An even number of lights and reflective devices shall be positioned symmetrically on the middle longitudinal axis of the vehicle, except for vehicles whose exterior form is not symmetrical. Each pair of lights having the same function shall have equal power of light.

15. Car spotlights and searchlights may be used only outside built-up areas if there are no oncoming vehicles. Such car lights may be used in built-up areas by drivers of operative and special service vehicles while performing their job duties.

16. Articulated lorries shall switch on the vehicle marking ‘Articulated Lorry’ while driving, and during the hours of darkness and reduced visibility, they shall switch on such marking while stopping and parking.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

 

Article 50 – Other conditions related to lights of certain road users and vehicles

1. Any vehicle or a caravan travelling from dusk till dawn, to which the provisions of Article 49 of this Law do not apply, shall have at least one white or yellow selective front light and at least one red rear light. If a vehicle has only one front or rear light, it shall be positioned in the centre or on the left side of the vehicle.

2. Trolleys which are manually propelled, shall have at least one white or yellow selective front light and at least one red rear light. The source of the two lights may be a spotlight which shall be installed on the left side of the trolley. A spotlight is not required for trolleys with a width of less than one metre.

3. An animal-powered vehicle shall have at least one white or yellow selective front light and at least one red rear light. Each spotlight in front and at the rear shall be positioned on the left side of the animal-powered vehicle. If it is impossible to attach such spotlights to a vehicle, a person accompanying the vehicle may carry them. In addition to this, an animal-powered vehicle shall have two red reflective signs, which shall be positioned as close to the edges of the vehicle as possible. Spotlights are not required for animal-powered vehicles with a width of less than one metre, but in this case a reflective device shall be positioned on the rear left side or in the centre.

4. While driving on a carriageway during the night hours:

a) a group of pedestrians who have a leader or who are marching shall carry at least one white or yellow selective front light and at least one red rear light or yellow front and rear light;

b) rovers who accompany pack, draft and mount animals, shall carry on their left side at least one white or yellow selective front light and at least one red rear light or yellow front and rear lights. A single device may be used as the source of such lights.

5. The requirements determined under paragraph 4 of this article are not obligatory in well-lit built-up areas.

 

Article 51 – The use of special flashing signals and voice signals

1. Drivers of vehicles of operative or special services which are performing job duties and which have blue beaming special flashing signals turned on, may deviate from the requirements established under Articles 25, 31, 41, 44 and also under Annexes No.1 and No.2 of this Law provided they strictly comply with the requirements of ensuring traffic safety. Red beaming special flashing signals may also be turned on together with blue beaming special flashing signals. In order to obtain priority over other road users, drivers of such vehicles shall turn on blue beaming special flashing signals. The right of priority may be used only when a driver makes sure that other road users have given him/her way. Drivers of vehicles escorted by a vehicle of operative or special services and which has turned on low beams shall have the same right.

2. Road users shall give way to vehicles of operative and special services with their blue beaming special flashing signals or voice signals turned on and/or which are giving a signal through a loudspeaker device, as well as to vehicles accompanying them which have low beams turned on, and they shall also free the space on the carriageway and stop if required.

3. While approaching a vehicle standing with a blue beaming special flashing signal turned on, drivers shall slowdown in order to immediately stop the vehicle if required.

4. Drivers, who have orange or yellow beaming special flashing signals turned on their vehicles and who are engaged in road construction, repair or cleaning works, or who are carrying dangerous goods, or driving oversize load (overweight load) or abnormal load (heavy haulage) vehicles, may deviate from the requirements of traffic signs and road markings, as well as the requirements of Article 31 (5),(10),(15),(16) and Article 38(1) of this Law provided they strictly comply with traffic safety rules. Orange or yellow beaming special flashing signals do not give priority over other road users and they are used to attract attention in order to avoid possible danger.

5. Special flashing signals and/or voice signals may not be used, unless such action is required to perform job duties.

6. Special colouring may be used on vehicles of operative and special services.

7. Special flashing and voice signals as well as special loudspeaker devices may be installed on special vehicles for collection services. Special flashing and voice signals shall be turned on simultaneously only in the case of an assault or a threat of an assault.

8. The installation of special flashing signals and voice signals as well as loudspeaker devices on vehicles and the painting of vehicles in special colouring patterns shall be performed in accordance with the procedure determined by the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

 

Article 52 – Hazard warning lights and hazard stop signs

1. Hazard warning lights shall be used in order to warn other road users about possible dangers. Hazard warning lights shall be turned on:

a) if it is impossible to remove or tow the vehicles involved in a traffic accident or broken down vehicles immediately and this creates obstructions for other road users;

b) if drivers are forced to stop at locations where stopping is prohibited;

c) if drivers are forced to stop due to the fact that their eyes are struck by the lights of oncoming motor vehicles;

d) in the process of towing (on the towed vehicles);

e) in the cases under Article 21(14) of this Law, while transporting broken down vehicles to parking areas or repairs shops;

f) for the purposes of warning road users about other types of danger.

2. Drivers shall place a hazard stop sign, and in the case of reduced visibility, a red flashing spotlight, after turning on hazard warning lights, as well as in the cases where such lights are not provided or are damaged:

a) in the cases of traffic accidents;

b) in the case of an involuntary stopping at a place where stopping is not permitted, and where other drivers are not able to distinguish vehicles in good time due to visibility conditions.

3. A hazard stop sign and a flashing red spotlight shall be placed at a distance which allows for the prompt warning of other drivers under particular circumstances about the danger, although such distance shall be no less than 15 metres in built-up areas, and no less than 30 metres outside built-up areas.

4. If hazard stop signs and flashing red spotlights are not provided, drivers shall ensure the warning of approaching drivers by other similar effective means.

5. A hazard stop sign shall have the shape of an equilateral triangle board with no less than 0.4 m long sides and no less than a 0.05 m wide red outline. The middle part of the triangle shall be transparent or painted in a bright colour. The red outline shall not allow light to pass through or shall have a reflective stripe. The board shall be arranged in a manner that allows its stable placement in a vertical condition. The hazard stop sign is displayed in Annex 3 of this Law.

 

Chapter V – Registration and Cancellation of the Registration of Vehicles, their Numbered Units and Auxiliary Technical Equipment of Agricultural Vehicles

 

Article 53 – Registration and cancellation of the registration of vehicles, their numbered units and auxiliary technical equipment of agricultural vehicles

1. Where there are circumstances determined by the legislation of Georgia the following vehicles shall be subject to registration:

a) motor vehicles with an engine of internal combustion and whose working volume of engine cylinder exceeds 50 cm3;

b) motor vehicles with an electric engine with a maximum working power exceeding 4kW;

c) trailers which are designed to be towed by vehicles determined under sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph;

d) auxiliary technical equipment for agricultural vehicles;

e) numbered units of vehicles determined under sub-paragraphs (a)-(d) of this paragraph;

f) individual (self-made) vehicles or remade vehicles determined under sup-paragraphs (a)-(e) of this paragraph, their numbered units and auxiliary technical equipment of agricultural vehicles.

2. Where there are circumstances determined by the legislation of Georgia, the registration of vehicles, their numbered units and auxiliary technical equipment of agricultural vehicles under paragraph 1 of this article shall be cancelled.

3. A registration certificate and a registration number (state number plates(s)) shall be issued after the registration of vehicles under paragraph 1 of this article in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of Georgia, and in the case of the registration of auxiliary technical equipment for agricultural vehicles, a technical ticket shall be issued in the form approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

4. Before the registration of, or where the registration of vehicles and auxiliary technical equipment of agricultural vehicles under paragraph 1 of this article has been cancelled (de-registered), as well as in other cases provided for by the legislation of Georgia, different type registration signs (transit plates, number plates for internal transit, ‘TEST’ number, the certificate of de-registration, temporary certificate, etc.) shall be issued.

5. During the registration of vehicles under this article, their maximum authorised mass and unladen mass shall be indicated together with the other registration data, if such vehicles are designed for carrying cargo.

6. The registration and the cancellation of the registration of vehicles, their numbered units and auxiliary technical equipment of agricultural vehicles in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of Georgia, shall be conducted, and registration certificates, registration numbers (state vehicle identification numbers), technical tickets and other type of registration signs shall be issued, and where there are circumstances determined by the legislation of Georgia, the maximum authorised mass and unladen mass shall be determined (except for the cases under paragraph 8 of this article and in the cases of aboveground electric vehicles) by the Legal Entity under Public Law called the Service Agency of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

7. The Ministry of Defence of Georgia shall be entitled to register or cancel the registration of vehicles and their numbered units in their ownership under paragraph 1 of this article directly or through the Legal Entity under Public Law called the Service Agency of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

8. If the Ministry of Defence of Georgia directly registers vehicles and their numbered units in their ownership, it shall issue registration certificates and registration numbers in accordance with the template determined by the legislation of Georgia.

9. Making or remaking vehicles, their numbered units and auxiliary technical equipment for agricultural vehicles under this article (self-made), shall be permitted only as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

10. The templates of vehicle registration numbers (state number plate(s)), transit plates, number plates for internal transit, and ‘TEST’ numbers, shall be approved by the Government of Georgia.

101. The form of the registration certificate of vehicles shall be approved by the Government of Georgia.

11. A respective entity shall grant number plates to aboveground electric vehicles.

12. The grounds for the registration or de-registration of vehicles, their numbered units and auxiliary technical equipment for agricultural vehicles, and the rules and conditions for the registration or de-registration, and for issuing registration numbers (state number plate(s)), technical tickets, and other registration signs, as well as for determining the maximum authorised mass and unladen mass (except for the cases under paragraph 8 of this article and aboveground electric vehicles) of vehicles shall be established by the order of the Minister of Internal Affairs on the Registration and De-registration of Vehicles.

13. Registration numbers (state number plate(s)), transit plates, number plates for internal transit, and ‘TEST’ numbers shall be attached on special places of vehicles (except for aboveground electric vehicles).

Law of Georgia No 1197 of 30 June 2017 – website, 14.7.2017

 

Chapter VI – Driving Licences

 

Article 54 – Categories and sub-categories of vehicles

1. The following persons shall have the right to drive vehicles of the categories and/or sub-categories determined by this article:

a) persons whose health status complies with the health status requirements necessary for driving vehicles as provided for by the legislation of Georgia;

b) persons who have been granted driving licences for the respective categories and/or sub-categories as provided for by the legislation of Georgia and whose right to drive has not been suspended, or terminated, or license seized.

2. Vehicles which require an appropriate driving licence to drive, shall be divided into the following categories: 

a) A – motorcycles;

b) B – cars (except for vehicles which fall into sub-category A1 or category A), whose maximum authorised mass does not exceed 3,500kgs and whose maximum number of seats, except for a driver’s seat, does not exceed eight, as well as category B cars, coupled with trailers whose maximum authorised mass does not exceed 750kgs, or category B cars coupled with trailers whose maximum authorised mass is more than 750kgs, but does not exceed the unladen mass of the vehicle, and the total maximum authorised mass of such caravan does not exceed 3,500kgs;

c) C – cars (except for cars which belong to category D or sub-category D1), with a maximum authorised mass exceeding 3,500 kilograms as well as category C cars coupled with trailers whose maximum authorised mass does not exceed 750kgs;

d) D – cars which are designed to carry passengers and whose number of passenger seats exceeds eight, excluding a driver’s seat, as well as category D cars coupled with trailers whose maximum authorised mass does not exceed 750kgs;

e) BE – category B cars coupled trailers whose maximum authorised mass exceeds 750kgs and the unladen mass, as well as category B cars coupled with trailers whose maximum authorised mass exceeds 750kgs and whose total maximum authorised mass exceeds 3,500kgs;

f) CE – category C cars coupled with trailers whose maximum authorised mass exceeds 750kgs;

g) DE – category D cars coupled with trailers whose maximum authorised mass exceeds 750kgs;

h) T – agricultural vehicles, as well as category T motor vehicles coupled with trailers;

i) S – specialised self-propelled vehicles, as well as category S motor vehicles coupled with trailers;

j) trams.

3. Vehicles of categories A, B, C, CE, D and DE, which require a driving licence to drive, shall be divided into the following categories:

a) A1 – motorcycles whose working volume of engine does not exceed 125 cubic centimetres and whose engine power does not exceed 11 kilowatts (light motorcycle);

b) B1 – motor tricycles and quadricycles;

c) C1 – cars (except for cars which belong to category D or sub-category D1), with a maximum authorised mass exceeding 3,500 kg but no more than 7,500kg, as well as sub-category C1 cars coupled with trailers with a maximum authorised mass of no more than 750kgs;

d) D1 – cars, which are designed to carry passengers whose number of passenger seats exceeds eight, excluding a driver’s seat, but does not exceed 16, and whose length is no more than eight m, as well as category D cars coupled with trailers with a maximum authorised mass of no more than 750 kg;

e) C1E – category C1 cars coupled with trailers with a maximum authorised mass exceeding 750 kg but not exceeding the unladen mass of the vehicle, and with a total maximum authorised mass of no more than 12000 kg;

f) D1E – category D1 cars coupled with trailers which are not designed to carry passengers and with a maximum authorised mass exceeding 750 kg but not exceeding the unladen mass of the vehicle, and with a total maximum authorised mass of no more than 12000 kg;

 

Article 55 – Driving licence exams and mandatory requirements to grant a driving licence 

1. Except for the cases provided for by the legislation of Georgia, any person who has passed a driving licence exam successfully (theory test and/or practical test) shall be granted a driving licence of the categories and/or sub-categories of vehicles determined by Article 54 of this Law.

2. Persons shall be admitted to a driving licence exam to obtain a driving licence of the categories and/or sub-categories of vehicles determined by Article 54 of this Law, if:

a) they have successfully completed the theory and practical course at a driver training school as provided for by the legislation of Georgia, except for the cases under paragraph 3 of this article;

b) they fulfil the requirements for granting a driving licence determined by the legislation of Georgia;

c) the grounds for suspending and seizing a driving licence have been eliminated and the term for suspending and seizing a driving licence has expired, except for the cases provided for by Article 59(51) of this Law;

d) there are no grounds for terminating (cancelling) a driving licence;

e) they comply with other requirements determined by the legislation of Georgia.

3. A person who has attained the age of 18 and has not attended a respective course at driver training school shall be admitted to the exam to obtain a driving licence of category and/or sub-category B, A1 and B1 vehicles. The procedure determined by this paragraph shall also apply to the admission of persons who have attained the age of 21 for exams to obtain a driving licence for category A vehicles.

4. The following minimum age limit shall be established for granting driving licences:

a) for vehicles falling within sub-category ‘A1’ the age limit shall be 17 years; 

b) for vehicles falling within category ‘A’:

b.a) the age limit shall be 21 years for persons who have obtained a driving licence for sub-category A1 vehicles no less than two years before applying for a category ‘A’ driving licence;

b.b) the age limit shall be 24 years, if there are no circumstances defined by sub-paragraph (b.a) of this paragraph;

c) for vehicles falling within category ‘B1’, the age limit shall be 16 years;

d) for vehicles falling within category ‘B’, the age limit shall be17 years;

e) for vehicles falling within category ‘BE’, the age limit shall be 18 years;

f) for vehicles falling within sub-categories ‘C1’ and ‘C1E’, the age limit shall be 18 years; 

g) for vehicles falling within categories ‘C’ and ‘CE’, the age limit shall be 21 years;

h) for vehicles falling within sub-categories ‘D1’ and ‘D1E’,the age limit shall be 21 years;

i) for vehicles falling within categories ‘D’ and ‘DE’, the age limit shall be 24 years;

j) for vehicles falling within category ‘T’, the age limit shall be 17 years;

k) for vehicles falling within category ‘S’, the age limit shall be 18 years;

L) for trams the age limit shall be 21 years.

5. A category C1 driving licence may be granted to persons who have already obtained the category B driving licence at the time of applying for the category C1 driving licence.

6. Category C, D and D1 driving licences may be granted to persons following a year after the granting of the category B driving licence to such persons (the period does not include the period of suspending and seizing a driving licence).

7. A category C1E driving licence may be granted to persons who have already obtained the category C1 driving licence at the time of applying for the category C1 driving licence.

8. A category D1E driving licence may be granted to persons who have already obtained the category D1 driving licence at the time of applying for the category C1 driving licence.

9. A category BE driving licence may be granted to persons who have already obtained the category B driving licence at the time of applying for the category BE driving licence.

10. A category CE driving licence may be granted to persons who have already obtained the category C driving licence at the time of applying for the category CE driving licence.

11. A category DE driving licence may be granted to persons who have already obtained the category D driving licence at the time of applying for the category DE driving licence.

12. Where there are circumstances determined by the legislation of Georgia, it shall be mandatory for a body authorised to admit persons to driving licence exams and to restore suspended and seized driving licences, to determine the compliance of the health status of such person with the health requirements necessary for driving vehicles.

13. Where persons who, in accordance with the legislation of Georgia, have had a restriction imposed on driving vehicles of categories and/or sub-categories under Article 54 of this Law, which is related to carrying any type of equipment and/or to the adaptation of vehicles, and/or who have been restricted from conducting any activity, and/or have had any other restriction imposed, the driving licence granted to such persons shall have legal force only if the requirements of such restrictions are met. The restrictions under this paragraph shall be encoded in the driving licence. Except for the restrictions under this paragraph, a driving licence may include data related to additional information in the established manner.

14. The health status requirements established for driving vehicles of the categories and/or sub-categories under Article 54 of this Law, the person authorised to determine the compliance of a person’s health status with health status requirements, the codified restrictions related to driving referred to in paragraph 13 of this article and the conditions for the establishment of such restrictions, as well as the procedures for including additional data, shall be determined by a joint order of the Minister of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Labour, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia and the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

15. Except for the requirements under this article, other requirements for granting driving licences may be established by an order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

16. Requirements other than those determined in this article may be determined for military servants in compulsory military service by an order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia. 

17. Where the circumstances determined by paragraph 13 of this article exist, persons who fail to fulfil the requirements of the restrictions shall be deemed as persons with no right to drive.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

Law of Georgia No 711 of 21 April 2017 – website, 10.5.2017

Law of Georgia No 1720 of 13 December 2017 – website, 25.12.2017

Law of Georgia No 3071 of 5 July 2018 – website, 11.7.2018

 

Article 56 – The equivalence of driving licences of different categories and sub-categories of vehicles

1. Persons holding driving licences of category A, B, C or D vehicles shall also have the right to drive vehicles of sub-categories A1, B1, C1 and D1 falling within the granted category.

2. Persons holding driving licences of category CE or DE vehicles shall also have the right to drive vehicles of sub-category C1E or D1E falling within the granted category.

3. Persons holding driving licences of category CE or DE vehicles, as well as of sub-category C1E and D1E vehicles, shall have the right to drive vehicles under category BE.

4. Persons holding driving licences of category CE vehicles, who also hold driving licences for category D vehicles, shall also have the right to drive vehicles under category DE.

5. Persons holding driving licences of sub-category C1E vehicles, who also hold driving licences of sub-category D1 vehicles, shall also have the right to drive vehicles under sub-category D1E.

6. Persons holding driving licences of category DE vehicles, who also hold driving licences of sub-category C1 vehicles, shall also have the right to drive vehicles under sub-category C1E.

7. Persons holding driving licences of category C vehicles, a year after obtaining such driving licences, shall have the right to carry passengers in the body of lorries in the manner prescribed by the legislation of Georgia if the number of passengers, excluding the driver, does not exceed eight.

8. Persons holding driving licences of category C and D vehicles, three years after obtaining the driving licence of category C vehicles, shall have the right to carry more than eight passengers in the body of the lorry, which shall be arranged as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

9. Persons holding driving licences of category B vehicles shall have the right to drive wheeled agricultural tractors, whose maximum authorised mass does not exceed 4250kg, and which are coupled with trailers, if the total authorised mass of the tractor and trailer does not exceed 4250kgs.

10. Persons holding driving licences of category C1 vehicles shall have the right to drive wheeled agricultural tractors, whose authorised mass does not exceed 8,250kg, and which are coupled with trailers, if the total authorised mass of the tractor and trailer does not exceed 8,250kgs.

11. Persons holding driving licence of category C vehicles shall have the right to drive wheeled agricultural tractors, the authorised mass of which does not exceed 12,000kg, and which are coupled with trailers, if the total authorised mass of the tractor and trailer does not exceed 12,000kgs.

12. The rights determined by paragraphs 9-11 of this article shall be in force only in the territory of Georgia.

13. The rights determined by paragraphs 1-11 of this article shall apply to holders of driving licences of foreign countries only if this is determined by the legislation of the country issuing such driving licences.

14. Except for the equivalences determined under paragraphs 1-11 of this article, other equivalences between the driving licences for different categories and sub-categories of vehicles may also be established by an order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

15. In the cases under the legislation of Georgia, if an authorised person includes relevant recommendations in the medical certificate of persons who hold driving licenses, the holders of the driving licences may not be granted or may be restricted from obtaining the right to drive vehicles falling within the categories and/or sub-categories that are equivalent to categories and/or sub-categories determined by this article, and/or may have other restrictions imposed on driving such vehicles.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

 

Article 57 – Certain conditions for granting driving licences to persons under the age of 18

1. A written consent of one of the parents or guardians shall be required to admit persons under the age of 18 to driving licence exams to obtain driving licences for category and/or sub-category B, T, A1 and/or B1 vehicles. If a person under the age of 18 passes such exams successfully, he/she shall be granted the right to drive vehicles of the respective category and/or sub-category and the respective driving licence (including the restrictions and prohibitions determined by this article).

2. Before attaining the age of 18 persons determined by paragraph 1 of this article shall be prohibited from:

a) carrying passengers for the purposes of generating income (profit), as well as carrying them by taxi;

b) working as a driver on the basis of an employment contract (except for working as a driver of a category T vehicle).

3. Where there are circumstances determined by paragraph 2 of this article a person shall have no right to drive.

 

Article 58 – Certain legal and organisational regulations with respect to granting driving licences

 1. The legal Entity under Public Law called the Service Agency of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia (the 'Agency'), within their scope of authority, shall organise exams to obtain a driving licence of vehicles of the categories and sub-categories determined under Article 54 of this Law, and grant and seize driving licences, restore suspended, seized or terminated driving licences, as well as issue and seize driving licences, tram driving licences and international driving licences (and replace and restore such driving licences). 

2. Granting the right to drive vehicles under the categories A, B, C, D, BE, CE, DE, T, S and/or sub-categories A1, B1, C1, D1, C1E, D1E shall be certified by issuing a respective driving licence for driving vehicles (a driving licence), and granting the right to drive trams shall be certified by issuing a tram driving licence:

a) the date of issuance of the driving licence of a certain category and/or sub-category of vehicle shall be construed as the date of granting the driving licence for the respective categories and/or sub-category;

b) the validity period of driving licences issued for driving category and/or sub-category A, B, BE, T, S, A1 and B1 vehicles shall be:

b.a) 15 years (except for the cases under sub-paragraph (b.b) of this article);

b.b) the period, but no more than five years, determined for the verification of the health status of a person who has been issued a medical certificate in which a person authorized to issue such certificates has recommended that a driving licence be issued for a limited period;

c) the validity period of driving licences issued for driving category and/or sub-category C, CE, D, DE, C1, C1E, D1 and D1E vehicles shall be:

c.a) 5 years (except for the cases under sub-paragraph (c.b) of this article);

c.b) the period, but no more than three years, determined for the verification of the health status of the person who has been issued a medical certificate in which a person authorized to issue such certificates has recommended that a driving licence be issued for a limited period;

d) the validity period of tram driving licences shall be:

d.a) 5 years (except for the cases under sub-paragraph (d.b) of this article);

d.b) the period, but no more than three years, determined for the verification of the health status of the person who has been issued a medical certificate in which a person authorized to issue such certificates has recommended that a driving licence be issued for a limited period;

21. Driving licences with legal force for the categories and sub-categories of the vehicles determined by Article 54 of this Law shall be granted with a point system.

22. A driving licence issued in Georgia shall be granted with 100 points according to the point system as follows:

a) on January 1 of each calendar year;

b) the acquisition of a driving licence on the day of issuance of a driving licence (additional category or sub-category) during a calendar year, reinstating a driving licence suspended or deprived during a calendar year within the same calendar year (except for the cases provided for by Article 59(51) of this Law), substitution of a driving licence within a calendar year or reinstating a lost driving licence shall not cause the increase or other change of the number of points determined by this paragraph);

c) reinstating driving licence in the cases determined by Article 59(51) of this Law.

23. The points granted to a driving licence are effective during the whole calendar year. The rest points of a driving licence granted on January 1 of a calendar year shall be cancelled in the following calendar year and a driving licence shall be granted 100 point again. Administrative offences in Georgia in the field of traffic during a calendar year shall cause the respective reduction of the points granted to a driving licence by Annex No 5 of this Law.

24. The suspension, deprivation and reinstating of a driving licence (except for the cases provided for by Article 59(51) of this Law) shall not affect the number of points granted to a driving licence during a said calendar year. When a driving licence suspended or deprived during a previous calendar year is reinstated during a current calendar year the procedure established by paragraph 22(b) of this article shall be applied.

25. If as the result of an administrative offence the number of points granted to a driving licence during a calendar year is reduced to zero or under, the said points shall be deemed to be exhausted. The exhaustion of the points granted to a driving licence shall cause the deprivation of a driving licence for 1 year for all categories (sub-categories) of vehicles.

26. The authorised body of the Ministry of Internal Affairs shall be obliged to inform the owner of a driving licence via an e-mail and/or SMS on the risk of the suspension of a driving licence when the points are reduced to 50 and again when they are reduced to 20 if the said body has the contact information of this person.

27. A driving licence issued in a foreign country shall be granted 100 points once in the territory of Georgia:

a) on the day of origination legal force in the territory of Georgia;

b) in the cases provided for by paragraph 22(a) and (c) of this article.

28. The procedures established by Article 58 and 59 of this Law shall apply to driving licences determined by paragraph 27 of this article. After the exhaustion of points granted to a driving licence issued by a foreign country the owner of a said driving licence shall not be allowed to drive a motorised vehicle in the territory of Georgia. In this case the reinstating of a driving licence in the territory of Georgia shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure established by the order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

29. The procedure of the reduction of points granted to a driving licence shall not apply to administrative offences recorded on photo and/or video tapes.

210. The procedure for administering the point system of a driving licence shall be determined by the order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

3. The validity period of driving licences issued for driving vehicles of different categories (sub-categories) in the cases under paragraph 2(b),(c), and (d) of this article shall be renewed by an order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia in accordance with the established procedure.

4. The total validity period of a driving licence shall comply with the maximum validity period of driving licences issued for the vehicles of respective categories (sub-categories).

5. Except for the cases under the legislation of Georgia, driving licences and tram driving licences shall be deemed issued after the driving licences for the granted categories and/or sub-categories have been prepared (printed) and the respective entries in the registry for issuing driving licences have been made. Persons shall not be deemed as holders of driving licences until driving licences are issued for such persons.

6. Relevant information on the issuance of driving licences, tram driving licences and international driving licences (including information on replacing and restoring driving licences) shall be reflected in the registry for issuing driving licences maintained by the Agency. Where there are inconsistencies between the records of the registry for issuing driving licences and the records made in driving licences, tram driving licences and international driving licences, priority shall be given to the records of the registry for issuing driving licences, unless otherwise provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

7. The procedures and conditions for holding exams to obtain driving licences for the vehicles of categories and/or sub-categories under Article 54 of this Law, granting or seizing driving licences, restoring suspended, seized or terminated driving licences, issuing and seizing driving licences, tram driving licences and international driving licences (including replacing and restoring such driving licences), maintaining the registry for issuing driving licences, as well as for replacing and recognising driving licences issued by foreign countries, shall be determined by this Law and an order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

8. The exams (exam tickets) for the driving licence theory tests to obtain the right to drive vehicles of categories and sub-categories under Article 54 of this Law shall be approved by an order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

9. The template of a driving licence for trams shall be approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

10. The validity period of driving licences for vehicles of granted categories (sub-categories) determined under paragraph 2 of this article may be reduced in accordance with the procedure established by the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

Law of Georgia No 711 of 21 April 2017 – website, 10.5.2017

 

Article 59 – The grounds for suspending, seizing and terminating licenses to drive

1. The grounds for suspending licences to drive vehicles of categories and/or sub-categories determined by Article 54 of this Law shall be:

a) the non-compliance of the health status of a person with the health requirements necessary for driving vehicles determined by the legislation of Georgia;

b) the suspension of the right to drive vehicles in accordance with the procedure established by the Code of Administrative Offences of Georgia;

c) the expiration of a validity period of driving licences for vehicles of categories and sub-categories A, B, C, D, BE, CE, DE, T, S, A1, B1, C1, D1, C1E or D1e granted to persons (only for the given categories and/or sub-categories);

d) the expiration of the validity period of a driving licence;

d1) the exhaustion of points granted to a driving licence during a calendar year, in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of Georgia;

e) the presence of other circumstances determined by the legislation of Georgia.

2. The grounds for seizing licenses to drive vehicles of categories and/or sub-categories determined by Article 54 of this Law shall be:

a) the seizure of a license to drive vehicles in accordance with the procedure established by the Code of Administrative Offences of Georgia;

b) the seizure of a driving licence in accordance with the procedure established by the Law of Georgia on Combating Drug-Related Crime.

3. The grounds for terminating a license to drive vehicles of categories and/or sub-categories determined by Article 54 of this Law shall be:

a) the decision of an authorised body (official) on the termination of a license to drive;

b) the death of a person;

c) the presence of other circumstances determined by the legislation of Georgia.

4. The suspension, seizure and termination of licenses to drive shall be conducted as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

5. Where there are circumstances determined by paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, persons may not drive vehicles until the grounds for suspending and seizing a license to drive vehicles have been eliminated and the right to drive vehicles has been restored. The suspended and seized license to drive vehicles shall be restored in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of Georgia.

51. A person whose driving licence was suspended on the basis determined by paragraph 1(d1) of this article shall be reinstated a driving licence after 1 year of its suspension or a driving licence shall be reinstated in advance if a said person takes driving tests successfully, in accordance with the procedure established by the order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Georgia. A person shall be allowed to take driving test for reinstating a driving licence in advance only once during a calendar year.

6. Persons shall not be deemed holders of a license to drive during the period between the suspension of the right to drive under the grounds determined in paragraph 1(a), (c), (d) and (d1) of this article and the restoration of such right as provided for by the legislation of Georgia.

Law of Georgia No 711 of 21 April 2017 – website, 10.5.2017

 

Chapter VII – Drivers' training schools and in-car training sessions

 

 Article 60 – Drivers' training schools

1. Drivers' training schools, and the duties, obligations and code of conduct of driving instructors and teachers, the material-technical base, the procedure and forms for controlling their activities, as well as the curriculum of theoretical and practical academic courses, shall be determined by the ordinance of the Government of Georgia on Drivers' Training Schools and the Duties and Obligations of Driving Instructors and Teachers.­­­­

2. Drivers' training schools may provide theoretical or practical courses of drivers’ training. If a person has successfully completed only a theoretical or practical course at drivers' training school, he/she has the right to complete the remaining course (a theoretical or a practical course) in a drivers' training school which offer such courses. Except for the cases under the legislation of Georgia, a person will be admitted to the exams to obtain a driving licence for the vehicles of the categories and/or sub-categories under Article 54 of this Law, if he/she has successfully completed the theoretical and practical courses of drivers' training school in accordance with the established rules.

Law of Georgia No 3487 of 29 April 2015 – website, 14.5.2015

 

Article 61 – In-car training sessions

1. For the purposes of this Law the term ‘vehicle’ shall mean vehicles of the categories and sub-categories determined by Article 54 of this Law.

2. The provision of practical training sessions to teach driving (in-car training sessions) shall be permitted only as provided for by the legislation of Georgia, in fenced ground and on motor racing tracks, as well as on roads, the list of which shall be duly approved by local self-government bodies.

3. Vehicles which are intended for driver’s practical training sessions (in-car training sessions), shall be equipped with a hook driving gear and foot brake pedal for the instructor as well as with an additional rear mirror. Such vehicles shall be equipped with the vehicle marking in accordance with the procedure established by Article 19(1)(h) of this Law.

4. In-car training sessions by the training vehicles shall be permitted on roads only with the presence of driving instructors and teachers in the cases where a person possesses the basic skills to practise driving. Instructors and teachers shall have the right to provide in-car training sessions on roads only after they have made sure that the person has obtained enough basic skills to practise driving.

5. Persons practising driving, shall be no less than 2 years younger than the minimum age determined for obtaining a driving licence under Article 55(4) of this Law.

6. The requirements under paragraph 3 of this article shall not apply to motorcycles, specialised self-propelled vehicles and agricultural vehicles.

7. In-vehicle training sessions on motorcycles, specialised self-propelled vehicles, and agricultural vehicles, shall be permitted only in fenced grounds and on motor racing tracks.

 

Chapter VIII – Transitional and Final Provisions

 

Article 62 – Transitional provisions 

1. Driving licences granted to persons (despite the date of issuance) for the right to drive vehicles of categories and/or sub-categories A, B, BE, T, S, A1 and B1 issued in Georgia after 1 April 2006 until the entry of this Law into force, shall remain in legal force until 1 September 2028 (except for the cases under paragraph 4 of this article).

2. Driving licences granted to persons (despite the date of issuance) for the right to drive vehicles of categories and/or sub-categories C, CE, D, DE, C, C1E, D1 and D1E issued in Georgia after 1 April 2006 until the entry of this Law into force, shall remain in legal force until 1 March 2019 (except for the cases under paragraph 4 of this article).

3. Driving licences issued in Georgia before 1 April 2006 shall remain in legal force until 1 April 2018 (except for cases under paragraph 4 of this article).

4. Before the entry of this Law into force driving licences issued for a limited period due to the circumstances under the legislation of Georgia shall remain in legal force during the validity period they have been issued for.

5. (Deleted).

6. (Deleted).

7. A driving licence in force issued in Georgia shall be granted 100 points provided for by this Law on 1 July 2017 which shall be in force until 1 January 2018.

8. A driving licence which was suspended or deprived before 1 July 2017 and is reinstated after 1 July 2017 shall be granted 100 points provided for by this Law.

9. A driving licence with a legal force in Georgia which was issued by a foreign country shall be granted 100 points provided for by this Law on 1 July 2017 which shall be in force until 1 January 2018, except for the cases when a driving licence issued in a foreign country was suspended a legal force on other basis provided for by the legislation of Georgia. The said driving licence shall be granted 100 points provided for by this Law on 1 January 2018 under a general procedure established by this Law.

Law of Georgia No 2038 of 20 February 2014 – website, 26.2.2014

Law of Georgia No 3093 of 19 February 2015 – website, 24.2.2015

Law of Georgia No 711 of 21 April 2017 – website, 10.5.2017

Law of Georgia No 1913 of 23 December 2017 – website, 28.12.2017

Law of Georgia No 2713 of 28 June 2018 – website, 29.6.2018

 

Article 63 – Measures to be implemented with regard to the entry of this Law into force

1. By 1 July 2014 the Government of Georgia shall be instructed to:

a) adopt the following normative acts:

a.a) on the Approval of Procedures and Conditions for the Agreement with Authorised Bodies to Grant Permission to Oversize Load (Overweight Load) or Abnormal Load (Heavy Haulage) Vehicles to Operate;

a.b) on the Approval of Requirements towards Roadworthiness Testing Centres;

a.c) on the Approval of Technical Requirements towards Vehicles (the compliance with which is assessed by roadworthiness testing) and Testing Methods;

a.d) on the Frequency of Mandatory Roadworthiness Tests for Vehicles of Different Categories;

a.e) on the Forms of Signboards for Roadworthiness Tests and the Procedures for the Production of such Signboards;

a.f) on Remaking Motor Vehicles;

a.g) on Self-Made Motor Vehicles;

a.h) on the Approval of the Templates of Vehicle Registration Numbers (State Number Plate(s)), Transit Plates, Number Plates for Internal Transit and ‘TEST’ Numbers;

a.i) on the Approval of the Procedures Applied to the Organisation of Work/Rest Schedules of Drivers of Vehicles Engaged in International Road Transport and the Usage of Devices for Controlling the Movement of Vehicles (Tachographs);

a.j) on the Approval of Requirements for Repair Shops and Mechanics Installing Controlling Devices (Tachographs), and on Providing Technical Services and Repair Works;

a.k) on the Activities of Driver Training Schools and Driving Instructors and Teachers;

b) ensure the compliance of subordinate legal acts with this Law.

11. The Government of Georgia shall ensure the adoption of a normative act on the Approval of the Form of the Registration Certificate of vehicles before 1 November 2017.

2. Before 1 July 2014 the Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia shall be required to issue a joint order, on Determining the Health Status Requirements Necessary to Drive Vehicles, the Codified Restrictions Related to Driving and the Conditions for Establishing Such Restrictions, as well as the Procedures for Indicating Data Containing Additional Information.

3. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia shall be instructed to:

a) issue the following normative acts before 1 July 2014:

a.a) on Establishing the Delivery Methods of the Lists of Tested Vehicles to the Patrol Police Department of the Ministry of the Internal Affairs of Georgia by Exam Centres;

a.b) on the Approval of the Template of a Tram Driving Licence;

a.c) on the Registration and De-registration of Vehicles;

d.d) on the Approval of Exams (Exam Tickets) for the Driving Licence Theory Test to Obtain the Right to Drive Vehicles;

b) ensure the compliance of subordinate legal acts with this Law;

c) approve the procedure for the administering of point system of driving licence before 1 July 2017.

4. Local self-government bodies shall be assigned to approve before 1 July 2014 a list of roads within the territories of their jurisdiction where practical training sessions (in-car training sessions) are permitted.

5. Before implementing activities provided for by this article, normative acts issued before the entry into force of this Law shall remain valid, whether or not they comply with the provisions of this Law.

Law of Georgia No 711 of 21 April 2017 – website, 10.5.2017

Law of Georgia No 1197 of 30 June 2017 – website, 14.7.2017

 

Article 631 – Normative acts to be adopted by the Government of Georgia

The Government of Georgia shall before 1 January 2018 ensure:

a) the adoption of normative acts referred to in Article 11(4) and (5) of this Law;

b) the compliance of subordinate normative acts with this Law.

Law of Georgia No 1913 of 23 December 2017 – website, 28.12.2017

 

Article 64 – Final provisions

1. This Law, except for Articles 1-52 and 54 -62, shall enter into force on the 15th day after its promulgation.

2. Articles 1-52 and 54-62 of this Law shall enter into force as of 1 March 2014.

3. Article 9 of the Law of Georgia on Traffic Safety (the Legislative Herald of Georgia No. 22(29), 1999, Art. 104) shall be deleted upon the entry into force of this Law.

4. The Law of Georgia on Traffic Safety (the Legislative Herald of Georgia No. 22(29), 1999, Art. 104) shall be declared invalid as of 1 March 2014. 

 

 

President of Georgia                                                    Giorgi Margvelashvili

 

Kutaisi

24 December 2013

No 1830-რს

 

 

20. 16/09/2020 - Law of Georgia - 7106-Iს - Website, 22/09/2020 - Amendment contains transitional provision 19. 17/07/2020 - Law of Georgia - 7062-რს - Website, 29/07/2020 18. 15/07/2020 - Law of Georgia - 6876-რს - Website, 28/07/2020 17. 12/06/2020 - Law of Georgia - 6292-IIს - Website, 19/06/2020 16. 17/03/2020 - Law of Georgia - 5760-IIს - Website, 23/03/2020 15. 28/06/2019 - Law of Georgia - 4920-IIს - Website, 04/07/2019 14. 19/04/2019 - Law of Georgia - 4525-IIს - Website, 24/04/2019 13. 19/03/2019 - Law of Georgia - 4346-IIს - Website, 27/03/2019 12. 05/07/2018 - Law of Georgia - 3071-რს - Website, 11/07/2018 11. 28/06/2018 - Law of Georgia - 2713-IIს - Website, 29/06/2018 10. 04/05/2018 - Law of Georgia - 2264-IIს - Website, 24/05/2018 9. 23/12/2017 - Law of Georgia - 1913-რს - Website, 28/12/2017 - Amendment contains transitional provision 8. 13/12/2017 - Law of Georgia - 1720-Iს - Website, 25/12/2017 - Amendment contains transitional provision 7. 30/06/2017 - Law of Georgia - 1197-IIს - Website, 14/07/2017 6. 21/04/2017 - Law of Georgia - 711-IIს - Website, 10/05/2017 5. 22/06/2016 - Law of Georgia - 5509-IIს - Website, 29/06/2016 4. 19/02/2016 - Law of Georgia - 4789-IIს - Website, 07/03/2016 - Amendment contains transitional provision 3. 29/04/2015 - Law of Georgia - 3487-IIს - Website, 14/05/2015 2. 19/02/2015 - Law of Georgia - 3093-IIს - Website, 24/02/2015 1. 20/02/2014 - Law of Georgia - 2038-IIს - Website, 26/02/2014
Online consultation

Unfortunately no operator is online.